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The era was also marked by an erosion of confidence in the “technological fix” (the idea that a ready technological solution couldbe found for any social problem) and the “technological imperative” (the idea that any innovation that can be pursued must be pursued). Doubts about theefficacy of technological fixes lay at the heart of opposition to the ABM system and the SST, the latter also opposed by several PSAC members. Further, peoplebegan doubting Vannevar Bush’s laissez faire assumption that the best way for government to effect economic and social progress was through support of undirected basic research inuniversities, and further doubts about the social efficacy of basic research arose as part of the resistance to Johnson’s Great Society.

Finally, as more Americans came to regard the Vietnam War as unwinnable and an inordinate drain on the country’s human and financialresources, the idea that national defense could be regarded as a public good lost credence, and science for the public good was seen as something separate from science for national defense. Pressured by faculty and students, manyuniversities gave up their contracts with the military, student radicals slapped the “war criminal” label on scientists doing research for the military, and thenumber of students seeking careers in science and engineering dropped significantly.

The great society

Lyndon Johnson is often regarded as having been opposed to science, in part because of the decline in federal R&D expenditures and PSAC’s influence during his administration. But he professedstrong support for science; it was academia he distrusted, particularly what he regarded as the elitist East Coast university establishment that he felt exertedundue influence over his predecessor. Johnson was also skeptical about the validity of Science—the Endless Frontier ’s premise that social and economic benefits would follow automatically if adequateresearch support for universities was forthcoming.

Donald Hornig, science advisor to Lyndon Johnson, and his predecessors. Left to right: Hornig, James Killian, Jr., George Kistiakowsky, H.Heffner (a senior OST staff member), and Jerome Wiesner.

As Senate majority leader, Johnson had been one of the first congressional advocates for a strong space program. As president, heregarded science as essential to his Great Society, but felt that the American academic community was reluctant to back him. And indeed it was: when Johnsonsigned the Medicare bill into law, for example, he said that he expected to see specific medical benefits flow from government support for research in thebiomedical sciences. The speech caused a furor in the academic community, which considered it an unwarranted intrusion into scientific prerogatives; inacademe’s view, Johnson committed the unforgivable sin of assigning a higher priority to applied than to basic research.

When Johnson turned to PSAC, he found its members to be primarily academic scientists who were ill-equipped to provide useful advice.Herbert Simon, a Carnegie Mellon University economist, was the only social scientist on PSAC during the Johnson Administration. Only two other socialscientists ever served on PSAC: James Coleman, a sociologist from Johns Hopkins University and, later, the University of Chicago, served from 1971 through theabolition of the presidential advisory system in January 1973. Daniel Patrick Moynihan, a Harvard University economist and later Senator from New York, alsoserved from early 1971 through the demise of PSAC. While it is true that social scientists exerted a more decisive influence during the Johnson administrationthan at any time since the early New Deal, that influence was exerted largely outside of science policy.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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