<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Additionally, PSAC had little input into Johnson’s national defense priorities, the Department of Defense being perceived as morecompetent to deal with such issues. Moreover, Johnson’s personal interest in defense matters focused less on strategic issues than on the bewilderingguerilla war in Vietnam, for which PSAC had no ready solutions. Worse, in Johnson’s eyes, PSAC members represented the academic community, which was amongthe most vociferous critics of the Vietnam War.

Decline of federal research support

Since creation of the Office of Naval Research in 1946, the military had been among the most important supporters of universitybasic research. That support declined significantly in the early 1970s, partly because of the political activism of university scientists during the Johnsonand Nixon years.

Another important factor was the “Mansfield amendment” to the fiscal year 1970 Department of Defense Appropriations Act.Sponsored by Senator Mike Mansfield (D-MT), with the strong support of Senator William Fulbright (D AK), it banned military support of university research thatdid not directly relate to specific military objectives, the rationale being that the Department of Defense had too much money for R&D and was monopolizing too much research, including basic research in mathematics andphysics, to the detriment of the civilian science and technology agencies. Although the Mansfield amendment expired at the end of fiscal year 1970, thedepartment remained reluctant to support university basic research for many years.

Total federal R&D expenditures measured in terms of constant dollars, which had increased continuously since World War II, peakedduring fiscal year 1967 and thereafter declined through fiscal year 1976; constant-dollar federal expenditures for basic research peaked during fiscalyear 1969 and declined through fiscal year 1975 (Fig. 2). Analysis based on data from Science and Engineering Indicators during the years in question, and on James E.Katz, Presidential Politics and Science Policy (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1978). Much of the decline in basic research expenditures was due to declining appropriations inthree agencies: the Department of Defense, whose constant-dollar basic research expenditures declined by 30 percent between their peak 1970 value and their 1975low point; NASA, whose constant-dollar research expenditures were cut in half between 1969 and 1976; and the Atomic Energy Commission (and its successor, theEnergy Research and Development Administration [ERDA], then the Dept. of Energy[DoE]), whose expenditures for basic research were reduced by 36.8 percentbetween 1967 and 1974. Federal programs in several cabinet departments, primarily the Departments of Commerce and Interior, werecombined into the Energy Research and Development Agency (ERDA), along with the AEC, in 1974; ERDA and several additional cabinet-level bureaus were furthercombined into the Department of Energy in 1976.

Only in the last case canreductions be attributed directly to presidential displeasure. The Department of Defense reductions were caused by the Mansfield Act. NASA’s were a small part ofdrastic reductions in its total budget after the successful moon landing in July 1969; the Nixon administration, Congress, and the general public lost interestin manned space research after that event.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Mueller Reply
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask