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Significance of the presidential science advisory system

Because frequent changes in control of the White House and Congress bring just-as-frequent changes in national priorities, making it all but impossible to develop a consistent science policy, federal institutional arrangements are all-important in helping determine the most significant national issues and coordinating priorities on the president’s agenda. Before SAC/ODM, BoB had carried out these functions by default (and reluctantly) through the annual budget process. But SAC/ODM had little direct access to the president except during occasional crises, as when Eisenhower turned to it for advice on defense against intercontinental ballistic missiles. The creation of PSAC and the appointment of a full-time science advisor put the requisite institutional mechanism in place at the highest levels of government.

Science and international relations

Two public reports prepared by PSAC during the Kennedy Administration— Research and Development in the New Development Assistance Program and Science and Technology in the Department of State —demonstrate the president’s interest in, and PSAC’s growing awareness of, the international ramifications of U.S. science policy. International relations, to which the Vannevar Bush report had paid scant attention, had been increasing in importance for several years. The Bowman Committee Report (chaired by Isaiah Bowman, president of Johns Hopkins University), one of the four committee reports that Bush appended to Science—the Endless Frontier , had devoted only two out of one hundred twenty-two pages to International Scientific Cooperation. Vannevar Bush, Science—the Endless Frontier (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1945), 113-14. Its internationally-oriented recommendations, intended to contribute to science for the public good, were: that the U.S. government provide adequate support for international scientific expeditions, as was to happen in the 1956-57 International Geophysical Year, which brought a substantial temporary increase in the National Science Foundation budget; that the U.S. government should provide support for American attendance at international scientific conferences, primarily those organized under the auspices of the International Council of Scientific Unions; that fellowships be offered for American scientists to study abroad and a selected number of European scientists to study in the United States; and that the Department of State post scientists abroad to a selected number of American embassies.

A science counselors program along the lines suggested by the Bowman Committee report was implemented within two years. The State Department also appointed a scientific adviser, whom William T. Golden visited during his October 1950-April 1951 interviews commissioned by the Bureau of the Budget. William A. Blanpied, ed., Impact of the Early Cold War on the Formulation of U.S. Science Policy (Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1995). Golden reported that this scientist felt isolated—a complaint that was to be voiced repeatedly by subsequent scientific advisers to the State Department.

Questions & Answers

how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
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Sherica
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Uday
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a perfect square v²+2v+_
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Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
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Embra Reply
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rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
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J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
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linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
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abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
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Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
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what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
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AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
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how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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