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In view of the continuity of PSAC’s membership and the fact that Wiesner had been a member of the Cambridge academic circle encouraging Kennedy’s presidential ambitions, it is not surprising that the presidential advisory system continued to function effectively. The organization and agenda of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, established by Act of Congress in September 1961, was largely set by Eisenhower administration PSAC reviews. Glenn T. Seaborg, a Nobel Laureate chemist from the University of California, Berkeley, and an Eisenhower-era PSAC member, was appointed chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission in February 1961. He and Wiesner, with strong PSAC support, played essential roles in the events leading to the 1963 Nuclear Test Ban treaty.

President Kennedy’s confidence in PSAC is evidenced by its tremendous productivity. The committee was a virtual report machine. Two early assignments resulted in reports entitled Research and Development in the New Development Assistance Program (May 24, 1961) and the Report of the Ad-Hoc Panel on Environmental Health (June 6, 1961). PSAC also maintained interest in science education and manpower ( Meeting Manpower Needs in Science and Technology , December 12, 1962) and the special requirements of specific academic disciplines ( Strengthening the Behavioral Sciences , April 20, 1962). PSAC also took on policy issues impinging on the direct interests of powerful non-defense federal departments with its reports on Science and Agriculture (January 29, 1962), and Science and Technology in the Department of State (February 27, 1962). Those two reports are evidence of a decided shift in operating philosophy, mirroring the style of Kennedy, who wanted his staff to be far more openly involved in the affairs of cabinet departments and agencies than did Eisenhower. Wells, op. cit . Whereas both of Eisenhower’s special assistants (Killian and Kistiakowsky) viewed their mandate strictly in terms of offering advice to the president and his senior advisers on issues with which he was directly and immediately concerned, Wiesner sought to oversee and to some extent coordinate the activities of the entire federal science and technology system. He assumed several functions (among many others) that the BoB had long been trying to force on a reluctant National Science Board.

In September 1962, at the strong recommendation of Senator Henry Jackson (D-WA), Wiesner’s staff was reorganized as the Office of Science and Technology (OST) and transferred from the White House to the Executive Office of the President (EoP), partly on the grounds that that move would institutionalize the presidential advisory system and partly on the grounds that the staff had become too large to fit easily into the White House organization itself. The establishment of the OST within the EoP made the science advisor accountable not only to the president but also to congress, since the director of OST required Senate confirmation and the activities and budgets of all EoP units were subject to congressional oversight; one reason for establishing OST was to quell congressional resentment about its denial of access to the presidential science advisory system. Ibid., 204 Wiesner’s access to the president was further reduced after the appointment of McGeorge Bundy as Director of the National Security Council. Although relations between the president and his science advisor remained cordial, his national security advice and participation was sought less frequently—a circumstance that also restricted his ability to bring other science- and technology-related issues to the president’s attention.

Questions & Answers

how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
hii
Uday
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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