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There have been repeated warnings from the U.N. Some climate specialists believe that limiting emissions to 42 billion metric tons annually by 2030 and further limiting emissions to 22 billion tons by 2050, would allow the world to stay within the 2° centigrade “tipping point. The U.N. considers this limit to be ineffective in holding warming to 2° centigrade. United Nations Enviromental Program, The Emission Gap Report 2014. According to the U.N. Undersecretary for the Environment, “The time window for reaching the 2° level is closing, closing, and the costs of getting to that goal is increasing, increasing”.

Those who forecast catastrophe are essentially saying that unchecked, global warming could eventually lead to an environmental GOTTERDAMMERUNG, a word made prominent in Richard Wagner’s last opera in his Ring Series in 1876. Gotterdammerung is a translation into German of an Old Norse phrase: Bagnarök, which in Norse mythology refers to a war between the gods that brings about the end of the world and its later renewal. Basically Gotterdammerung means when “all hell breaks loose”.

Whatever the cause, global climate change has become a serious problem for the whole world, and the consensus is clearly that human activity is the leading cause.

Effects of climate change

The potential consequences for poorer nations look to be even more serious than for rich nations. It may widen income gaps between rich and poor nations because of the differential effects of higher temperatures. According to the World Bank, emerging nations will bear the brunt of the effects of climate change, World Bank, World Development Report: Development and Climate Change, Washington, DC: The World Bank, 2010, p.xiii. specifically that they would bear 75% to 80% of the costs of damages caused by changing climate.

Data for nearly 140 countries from 1950-2008 suggest that higher temperatures would have negative effects on growth in poor countries, but not so much rich ones. Estimates of effects vary. A recent NBER study Dell M., Jones B.F., Olken B.A. 2008. Climate Shocks and Economic Growth: Evidence from the Last Half Century. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 14132. Available at www.nber.org/papers/w14132. finds that a temperature increase of 1° Celsius would mean a decline in world per capita GDP or 8.5%. Still another recent study of emerging nations alone arrives at the much less pessimistic conclusion that a 1oC increase in surface temperature would lead to reductions of only 1% in per capita GDP. “The Weather Report”, The Economist , January 18, 2014, p.76. Finally, the World Bank estimates that even with 2°C warming, the minimum the world is likely to expect, could result in permanent reduction in GDP for Africa and South Asia. World Bank, op.cit. pp.XX. How might high temperatures reduce growth rate in poorer nations?

  1. Lower crop yields in the tropics, but likely not in temperate zones.
  2. Resurgence of tropical diseases and Northern migration such as malaria and yellow fever.
  3. Sea level rise flooding Bangladesh, Maldives, parts of Coasts of India, Thailand, and other low lying areas.

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Mueller Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Economic development for the 21st century. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11747/1.12
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