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Introduction

Worldwide concern over the effects of “greenhouse” gases on climate change became increasingly evident in the late eighties and early nineties. International efforts to curb emissions of these gases culminated in the Kyoto Protocol Treaty negotiated in 1997 in the City of Kyoto, Japan. The Treaty initially applied only to industrialized countries, not emerging nations. Although several industrial nations declined to sign the Treaty, it came into effect in February 2005. Perhaps the most notable refusal to agree to the Protocol and Treaty was the United States. There the Senate delivered a near unanimous vote against, this accord, citing the lack of commitment of China, India, and other large emerging nations to reduce emissions.

Signatories to the Kyoto Treaty agreed to reduce the collective emissions of greenhouse gases of industrialized nations by 5.2% compared to 1990. It was expected at the time that this target would actually result in a 29% cut in emissions by the year 2010. The Treaty applied to overall emissions of six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N 20 ), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ). However, in public discussions and in the press, the prime focus has been upon reducing emissions of CO 2 over time, even though the impact of the greenhouse gas methane, pound for pound, has more potent warming effects than CO 2 . However methane is far less abundant in the atmosphere than is CO 2 . Still, this molecule may be responsible for as much as one-quarter of global warming. It is to be noted that some atmospheric methane arises from natural sources, such as gas seeps or wetlands. Eli Kintisch, “Hunting a Climate Fugitive”, Science , Vol. 344(6191), June 27, 2014.

If CO 2 emissions only are considered, it is apparent that this source of greenhouse gas has climbed precipitously since 1950, from about 10 billion tons per year to about 35 billion tons in 2012, per year a 3½ fold increase (see Table 18-1). Emissions of CO 2 continued to climb after 1997, as well as after 2005, when the Treaty came into force.

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As indicated in Figure 17-1 , the Treaty has not been effective in reducing CO2 emissions.

The European Union moved early on after 2005 to curb global warming. In 2007, the EU agreed to a 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. This was intended to set the stage for a very sharp reduction of 80% by 2050. The 2007 EU agreement resulted in little concrete progress, leading the EU nations to agree in 2014 among themselves (not by treaty) to take further measures intended to cut greenhouse gases emissions by 40% from levels obtained in 1990.

Shortly after the latest EU action, recognition of the inefficacy of the Kyoto Agreement led to a November 2014 groundbreaking agreement to reduce emissions by the two most important sources of CO 2 in the atmosphere: the United States and China. Together, these two nations accounted for 44% of global carbon emissions in 2013. This agreement calls for the U.S. to reduce emissions by 26% by 2025, and for China to begin to take steps to curb emissions by 2030, the first time China has agreed to any limits on emissions.

Questions & Answers

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Economic development for the 21st century. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11747/1.12
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