0.10 Sets and counting  (Page 7/9)

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Now we address the second problem.

Permutations with Similar Elements

Let us determine the number of distinguishable permutations of the letters ELEMENT.

Suppose we make all the letters different by labeling the letters as follows.

${E}_{1}{\text{LE}}_{2}{\text{ME}}_{3}\text{NT}$

Since all the letters are now different, there are $7!$ different permutations.

Let us now look at one such permutation, say

${\text{LE}}_{1}{\text{ME}}_{2}{\text{NE}}_{3}T$

Suppose we form new permutations from this arrangement by only moving the E's. Clearly, there are $3!$ or 6 such arrangements. We list them below.

${\text{LE}}_{1}{\text{ME}}_{2}{\text{NE}}_{3}T$
${\text{LE}}_{1}{\text{ME}}_{3}{\text{NE}}_{2}T$
${\text{LE}}_{2}{\text{ME}}_{1}{\text{NE}}_{3}T$
${\text{LE}}_{3}{\text{ME}}_{3}{\text{NE}}_{1}T$
${\text{LE}}_{3}{\text{ME}}_{2}{\text{NE}}_{1}T$
${\text{LE}}_{3}{\text{ME}}_{1}{\text{NE}}_{2}T$

Because the $E$ 's are not different, there is only one arrangement $\text{LEMENET}$ and not six. This is true for every permutation.

Let us suppose there are $n$ different permutations of the letters $\text{ELEMENT}$ .

Then there are $n\cdot 3!$ permutations of the letters ${E}_{1}{\text{LE}}_{2}{\text{ME}}_{3}\text{NT}$ .

But we know there are $7!$ permutations of the letters ${E}_{1}{\text{LE}}_{2}{\text{ME}}_{3}\text{NT}$ .

Therefore, $n\cdot 3!=7!$

Or $n=\frac{7!}{3!}$ .

This gives us the method we are looking for.

Permutations with similar elements

The number of permutations of $n$ elements taken $n$ at a time, with ${r}_{1}$ elements of one kind, ${r}_{2}$ elements of another kind, and so on, is

$\frac{n!}{{r}_{1}!{r}_{2}!\text{.}\text{.}\text{.}{r}_{k}!}$

Find the number of different permutations of the letters of the word MISSISSIPPI.

The word MISSISSIPPI has 11 letters. If the letters were all different there would have been $\text{11}!$ different permutations. But MISSISSIPPI has 4 S's, 4 I's, and 2 P's that are alike.

So the answer is $\frac{\text{11}!}{4!4!2!}$

Which equals 34,650.

If a coin is tossed six times, how many different outcomes consisting of 4 heads and 2 tails are there?

Again, we have permutations with similar elements.

We are looking for permutations for the letters HHHHTT.

The answer is $\frac{6!}{4!2!}=\text{15}$ .

In how many different ways can 4 nickels, 3 dimes, and 2 quarters be arranged in a row?

Assuming that all nickels are similar, all dimes are similar, and all quarters are similar, we have permutations with similar elements. Therefore, the answer is

$\frac{9!}{4!3!2!}=\text{1260}$

A stock broker wants to assign 20 new clients equally to 4 of its salespeople. In how many different ways can this be done?

This means that each sales person gets 5 clients. The problem can be thought of as an ordered partitions problem. In that case, using the formula we get

$\frac{\text{20}!}{5!5!5!5!}=\text{11},\text{732},\text{745},\text{024}$

We summarize.

1. Circular Permutations

The number of permutations of $n$ elements in a circle is

$\left(n-1\right)!$
2. Permutations with Similar Elements

The number of permutations of $n$ elements taken $n$ at a time, with ${r}_{1}$ elements of one kind, ${r}_{2}$ elements of another kind, and so on, such that $n={r}_{1}+{r}_{2}+\cdots +{r}_{k}$ is

$\frac{n!}{{r}_{1}!{r}_{2}!\cdots {r}_{k}!}$

This is also referred to as ordered partitions .

Combinations

Suppose we have a set of three letters $\left\{A,B,C\right\}$ , and we are asked to make two-letter word sequences. We have the following six permutations.

$\text{AB}$ $\text{BA}$ $\text{BC}$ $\text{CB}$ $\text{AC}$ $\text{CA}$

Now suppose we have a group of three people $\left\{A,B,C\right\}$ as Al, Bob, and Chris, respectively, and we are asked to form committees of two people each. This time we have only three committees, namely,

$\text{AB}$ $\text{BC}$ $\text{AC}$

When forming committees, the order is not important, because the committee that has Al and Bob is no different than the committee that has Bob and Al. As a result, we have only three committees and not six.

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
China
Cied
types of nano material
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
what is nano technology
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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