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A kitchen synthesis of nanorust for the removal of arsenic in Third World countries

Kitchen Synthesis of Nanorust

J.T. Mayo, Courtney Payne, Lauren Harrison, Cafer Yavuz, Dr. Mary McHale, Professor Vicki Colvin

Objectives

  • To perform a kitchen synthesis
  • To obtain functional iron oxide nanocrystals that can be used for water purification of arsenic in Third World countries by using everyday items found in any kitchen.
  • To appreciate the many forms of iron and the many uses of iron oxide nanocrystals.
  • To appreciate the advanced analytical instruments that are used in the continuing research of nanotechnology.
  • Remember: Thinking simple saves money and lives.

Grading

Your grade will be determined according to the following:

  • Pre-lab (10%)
  • Lab Report Form (80%)
  • TA points (10%)

Background

Having clean drinking water is one of the most fundamental necessities of life. There are many different forms of possible contamination, but among the most well-studied and problematic inorganic contaminants is arsenic. Arsenic is one of the oldest known carcinogens. In 1999, the US National Academy of Sciences reported that arsenic can cause bladder, lung and skin cancer, and possibly cause liver and kidney cancer. The physical symptoms of arsenic poisoning include: extreme fatigue, nausea, vomiting, partial paralysis, and reproductive damage. National Research Council. Arsenic in drinking water . Washington, DC, National Academy Press, 1999.  Arsenic is naturally occurring in water due to its abundance in certain types of rocks, but it can have anthropogenic origins as well.

Arsenic can be found all over the world, but is currently a particular problem in Third World countries due to the costly nature of water purification. It is especially abundant in Bangladesh, but arsenic has also been found in the ground water of Argentina, Chile, India, Mexico, Taiwan and Thailand. Additionally, closer to home, most states in the western US have levels of arsenic concentrations of greater than 10 parts per billion (10 ppb). This was not a cause for concern until the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 2006 lowered the maximum allowable level of arsenic from 50 ppb to 10 ppb. In 2001, approximately 13 million Americans were drinking water that had elevated levels of arsenic in the water. http://www.epa.gov/safewater/arsenic/index.html

Previous methods for arsenic removal have included: manganese greensand columns that have been pretreated with dilute acid, coagulation/microfiltration, iron oxide based filtration, and activated alumina. The “Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash” or “ARUBA” method, invented by Ashok Gadgil of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, involves coating the surface of the contaminants with bottom ash and ferric hydroxide. Bottom ash is sterile waste material from coal-fired power plants which would make the cost of remediation about 0.5 cents per kg ARUBA of which generally 4-5 grams of ARUBA is needed for 1 liter of water, initially containing 400 ppb arsenic.

Nanomagnetite synthesis for arsenic removal has been hailed as Forbes: ‘Top 5 Nanotech Breakthroughs of 2006’ and Esquire listed it as ‘Six Ideas That Will Change the World’ in 2007. Basically, the technique entails forming iron oxide nanocrystals that possess very unique and size-dependent characteristics for environmental remediation of arsenic contaminated water.

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
Abhi
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
hmm
Abhi
is it a question of log
Abhi
🤔.
Abhi
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
hii
Uday
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Nanomaterials and nanotechnology. OpenStax CNX. May 07, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10700/1.13
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