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The unemployment rate on the long-run Phillips curve will be the natural rate of unemployment. A small inflationary increase in the price level from AD 0 to AD 1 will have the same natural rate of unemployment as a larger inflationary increase in the price level from AD 0 to AD 2 . The macroeconomic equilibrium along the vertical aggregate supply curve can occur at a variety of different price levels, and the natural rate of unemployment can be consistent with all different rates of inflation. The great economist Milton Friedman (1912–2006) summed up the neoclassical view of the long-term Phillips curve tradeoff in a 1967 speech: “[T]here is always a temporary trade-off between inflation and unemployment; there is no permanent trade-off.”

In the Keynesian perspective, the primary focus is on getting the level of aggregate demand right in relationship to an upward-sloping aggregate supply curve. That is, AD should be adjusted so that the economy produces at its potential GDP, not so low that cyclical unemployment results and not so high that inflation results. In the neoclassical perspective, aggregate supply will determine output at potential GDP, unemployment is determined by the natural rate of unemployment churned out by the forces of supply and demand in the labor market, and shifts in aggregate demand are the primary determinant of changes in the price level.

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Fighting unemployment or inflation?

As explained in Unemployment , unemployment can be divided into two categories: cyclical unemployment    and the natural rate of unemployment    , which is the sum of frictional and structural unemployment. Cyclical unemployment results from fluctuations in the business cycle and is created when the economy is producing below potential GDP—giving potential employers less incentive to hire. When the economy is producing at potential GDP, cyclical unemployment will be zero. Because of the dynamics of the labor market, in which people are always entering or exiting the labor force, the unemployment rate never falls to 0%, not even when the economy is producing at or even slightly above potential GDP. Probably the best we can hope for is for the number of job vacancies to equal the number of job seekers. We know that it takes time for job seekers and employers to find each other, and this time is the cause of frictional unemployment. Most economists do not consider frictional unemployment to be a “bad” thing. After all, there will always be workers who are unemployed while looking for a job that is a better match for their skills. There will always be employers that have an open position, while looking for a worker that is a better match for the job. Ideally, these matches happen quickly, but even when the economy is very strong there will be some natural unemployment and this is what is measured by the natural rate of unemployment.

The neoclassical view of unemployment tends to focus attention away from the problem of cyclical unemployment—that is, unemployment caused by recession—while putting more attention on the issue of the rates of unemployment that prevail even when the economy is operating at potential GDP. To put it another way, the neoclassical view of unemployment tends to focus on how public policy can be adjusted to reduce the natural rate of unemployment. Such policy changes might involve redesigning unemployment and welfare programs so that they support those in need, but also offer greater encouragement for job-hunting. It might involve redesigning business rules with an eye to whether they are unintentionally discouraging businesses from taking on new employees. It might involve building institutions to improve the flow of information about jobs and the mobility of workers, to help bring workers and employers together more quickly. For those workers who find that their skills are permanently no longer in demand (for example, the structurally unemployed), policy can be designed to provide opportunities for retraining so that these workers can reenter the labor force and seek employment.

Questions & Answers

what is equillibrium
riy Reply
Equilibrium is a state of balance e.g supply equals demand then there is no oversupply or shortage of goods
Scelo
When price increases quantity demnd alway decreases
Sonu Reply
this is because when price increase,consumer can longer effort to pay as they usually do thereby leading to the fall in dd
Muafue
Explain the impact of increase price of substitude goods an equilibirum price and equilibirum quantity
Sonu
Again according to the first law of demand which state that more is demanded at higher price than at lower price.Because of this consumer believe that more can only be demand at low prices than higher prices meaning that a slide change in price will affect demand
Muafue
what are the functions of money?
Liza Reply
medium of exchange
Alhassan
Medium of exchange,store of value,standard for differ payment and unit of account
Muafue
A medium of exchange for goods and services
Allen
what is demand for labour?
Allen
boumols inventory theory?
Vyshnavi Reply
what is inflation?
Jestony Reply
the increase in general price level and the decrease in money value
Inflation can be define as the persistence rise in the general price level of goods and services in the market
Muafue
what are the three reason tgat we study economics
armaan Reply
we may be rational people, know efficient where met profit maximization, know efficient allocation
li
1.How monetary and fiscal policy create stable economy. 2. How to create fairness for all citizens. 3. Determine drivers of human economic behavior.
Mark
To know that you we need understand the demand and supply and others important matters in economics
emz
can you explain. what is the reasons for having international trade
atikah Reply
to aid productivity and efficiency, for economic growth, to help reduce dependence on local product
kunle
can someone please help differentiate between short and long run in microeconomics and macroeconomics
kunle
what is inflation in economic
Christopher Reply
a general increase price level and fall in purchasing value of money
a general increase in price level and fall in purchasing value of money
due to high supply of mony in the market the demand of goods will increase and price will high its call inflation.
Thalay
thanks
Christopher
how to calculate real and calculated unemployment rate for false information
James Reply
I think unemployment can't be calculated but I think due to economics survey that happens every year we come to know about unemployment rate and compares that with precocious year unemployment rate
are foreigners in our country helping our economy or not?
Nwabali Reply
foreign countries invest in India by two ways one for there business promotion(of their product ) through employment which employment generates in India and the 2nd is foreign aid fund means when a country suffers from flood,earthquake etc so other countries help them financial(called foreign aid)
simple answer is yes
Yes, this is through the investment as investors.
jossy
what is revenue commission?
Kelvyn Reply
is the organ which is collect tax from society for public servise
ABIYOT
Where is determination of price is done?
Vidhan Reply
when price equal with marginal cost
ABIYOT
what is demand
Fransis Reply
The willingness and ability to of a buyer to purchase a commodity
Moses
the thing that u r able to buy and which fullfill your want is called Demand
Stanzin
what u want to buy to fulfilling of yours desires is called demand
Thalay
explain manetary policy
Amina Reply
why SA is used in estimating of national income
Unique Reply
first what SA stand for?
Alhassan
SA stand for static adjustment
Unique
machenism of monetary expansion
EFAT
norther one
Unique
explain manetary policy
Amina

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Source:  OpenStax, Macroeconomics. OpenStax CNX. Jun 16, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11626/1.10
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