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  • Member classes
  • Local classes
  • Anonymous classes
  • Nested top-level classes and interfaces

The previous two modules explained member classes and local classes. This module will explain anonymous classes.

What is an anonymous class ?

I'm going to begin my discussion with a quotation from one of my favorite authors, David Flanagan, author of Java in a Nutshell .

"An anonymous class is essentially a local class without a name."

If you have read the previous module, you should know quite a lot about local classes at this point in time. Continuing with Flanagan's words,

"Instead of defining a local class and then instantiating it, you can often use an anonymous class to combine these two steps... an anonymousclass is defined by a Java expression , not a Java statement . This means that an anonymous class definition can be included within a larger Java expression..."

As you will see from the sample program in this module, anonymous class definitions are often included as arguments to method calls.

As is the case for an object of a member class or a local class (discussed in previous modules), an object of an anonymous class must be internally linked to an object of the enclosing class.

Thus, an anonymous class is truly an inner class, because an object of the anonymous class cannot exist in the absence of an object of the enclosing class.

What about an anonymous interface ?

Interfaces defined within classes are implicitly static. This means that they are always top-level. There is no such thing as a member interface, a local interface, or an anonymous interface.

Why use anonymous classes ?

As with local classes, objects instantiated from anonymous classes share many of the characteristics of objects instantiated from member classes.However, in some cases, an anonymous class can be defined closer to its point of use than would be possible with a member class or a local class. Once youbecome accustomed to the somewhat cryptic syntax used with anonymous classes, this can often lead to improved code readability.

Probably the most important benefit of anonymous classes has to do with accessing the members of enclosing classes. Just like with member classesand local classes, methods of an anonymous class have direct access to all the members of the enclosing classes, including private members. Thus the useof anonymous classes can often eliminate the requirement to connect objects together via constructor parameters.

In addition, although not demonstrated in this module, as with local classes, objects of anonymous classes have access to final local variables that are declared within the scope of the anonymous class.

Can be particularly useful when ...

An anonymous class can be particularly useful in those cases where

  • There is no reason for an object of the anonymous class to exist in the absence of an object of the enclosing class.
  • There is no reason for an object of the anonymous class to exist outside a method of the enclosing class.
  • Methods of the object of the anonymous class need access to members of the object of the enclosing class.
  • Methods of the object of the anonymous class need access to final local variables and method parameters belonging to the method in which the anonymous class is defined.
  • Only one instance of the anonymous class is needed.
  • There is no need for the class to have a name that is accessible elsewhere in the program.

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Object-oriented programming (oop) with java. OpenStax CNX. Jun 29, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11441/1.201
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