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Water that has been re-circulated but has received no further treatment and water that has been recovered from processing of food by evaporation or drying, may be used again. This water cannot be used, however, if it poses a risk to the safety and suitability of food.

Water used as an ingredient

You must give careful consideration when using water as an ingredient to prevent problems with safety. Potable water must be used wherever necessary to avoid food contamination.

A safety problem could occur, for example, when water is used as an ingredient in ice cream. The freezing process does not kill microorganisms, so it is very easy for a person to become ill from eating contaminated ice cream.

Water used to make ice and steam

Water may also be used as an ingredient in the form of ice or steam. Certain pathogens can survive the ice- or steam-making process, thus potentially remaining a risk to health if the ice or steam from this source comes into direct contact with food.

Both ice and steam should be produced, handled, and stored to protect them from contaminants.

Many foods have direct contact with steam. The water used in the steaming process should not constitute a threat to the safety and suitability of the products.

Correct construction of wells and plumbing systems

Your facility must have adequate and safe wells and plumbing systems to prevent the risk of contamination by water. As a food safety manager, you should know the requirements for the factory for water usage and also all the systems used. With this knowledge, you can identify any maintenance problems and can thus prevent any subsequent contamination.

Facility requirements

The source of potable water to your facility must be a recognised one, from either a municipal supply or private well. For it to be acceptable for use, the water supply system must be properly constructed, properly maintained, and routinely tested to ensure the safety of the water coming into your factory.

If your factory receives water from a well, the well should be tested at least once a year; however, you should carry out a risk assessment to see how often testing needs to be done. This risk assessment may look at areas such as possible leaking of contaminates from farmland or industrial areas.

You must have potable hot and cold water available in processing areas. There should also be sufficient volume and water pressure to allow appropriate cleaning.

On-site water treatment

If your factory has a non-potable water supply which is required to be used as an ingredient or otherwise come into direct contact with food, then this must be effectively purified to potable water quality to remove any risk of contamination.

Water can be purified onsite by a number of methods:

  • sand filtration
  • membrane filtration
  • charcoal filtration
  • reverse osmosis
  • ion exchange.

Cross-connections and backflow

Any connection or structural arrangement between a potable water system and a non-potable system, liquid or otherwise, through which backflow can occur.
The flow of water or other liquids, mixtures, or substances into a potable water system from any source other than the intended source.

Backflow, by its very nature of potentially mixing potable and non-potable water systems, can pose a high risk to the health of consumers.

(Source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration)

Plumbing connections to sewer lines

Within any water conveyance system, there are two types of plumbing connections: direct and indirect.

Direct Connection
A solid physical joining to a waste or soil line
Indirect Connection
Other than a solid physical joining to a waste or soil line. It can be either an air gap or an air break.

an example of an air gap
Air gap.
an example of an air break
Air break.

(Source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration)

Air gap

Air Gap
The unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the lowest opening from any pipe or outlet supplying fixture, or other device, and the flood level rim of the receptacle.

The vertical physical separation must be at least two times the inside diameter of the water inlet pipe above the flood rim level, but cannot be less than one inch.

air gap on lavatory
Air gap on lavatory.
air gap and effective opening
Air gap and effective opening.

(Source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration)

Air break

Air Break
A piping arrangement in which a drain from a fixture, appliance, or device discharges indirectly into another fixture, receptacle or interception at a point below the flood level rim.

The connection does not provide an unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere and is not solidly connected, but precludes the possibility of backflow to a potable water source into a sink or dishwasher/or fixture being drained.

backflow prevention devices
Backflow prevention devices.

(Source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration)

Monitoring and management

The management of water quality in your company is extremely important. You must develop a routine monitoring system to ensure water safety for the various uses in food production. You must also be aware of any risks posed by the design of the water conveyance system; for example, the cross- connections in the plumbing system.

When your company commissions any new equipment that uses water, it must be monitored prior to full use to ensure that the safety of water is not compromised.

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
I'm not good at math so would you help me
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Food safety knowledge network basic level requirements. OpenStax CNX. Dec 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11142/1.4
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