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What does it take to turn around low performing schools?

High-performing, high-poverty schools have strong leadership, a clear purpose, and clearly defined curriculum (Carter, 2000). In high-performing schools, teachers are well trained, acknowledge the difficult findings, spend most of their time teaching, and ensure that learning is happening (Carter, 2000; Schmoker, 2006). In this brief literature review, we examine the factors found in high performing schools that are also prevalent in the schools of this study: namely the impact of instruction, teacher training, leadership, use of assessment data, and instructional coaches for student achievement.

The impact of instruction on student achievement

In recent years, there has been renewed interest in the role of the teacher as the key to school improvement. The 2001 NCLB legislation codifies the emphasis of having a highly qualified teacher in every classroom (as cited in Stronge, Ward, Tucker,&Hindman, 2008). According to Schmoker (2006), the single greatest determinant of learning is not socioeconomic factors or funding levels; it’s instruction. Sammons (1987) found that teaching had 6 to 10 times as much effect on learning as all other factors combined. The September, 1996 report of the National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future (the Commission), What Matters Most: Teaching for America’s Future , followed by Pursuing Excellence , The report of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study, all point to the finding that what teachers know and can do is crucial to what students learn (as cited in Darling-Hammond&Ball, 1997).

Therefore, to improve overall student achievement, the quality of instruction must be improved (Carter, 2000; Wallace 2003).

Teacher training and student achievement

To improve instruction, the quality of educators providing the instruction must be improved. In accordance with Carter (2000), Leithwood et. al.( 2004), and Schmoker (2006), teacher quality is the single most accurate indicator of students’ performance in school. To ensure that high-level instruction is occurring, schools need to have highly trained teachers. Yoon and colleagues (Yoon, Duncan, Lee, Scarlos,&Shapley, 2007) concluded that “teachers who receive sub­stantial professional development can boost their students’ achievement by about 21 percentile points” (p. iii). The right kinds of professional development for both teachers and school leaders can directly contribute to improved student performance (Holloway, 2006).

Accordingly, on-going targeted and focused professional development can significantly impact student achievement (Thurston, 2008).

The impact of leadership on student achievement

To ensure that quality instruction is happening throughout a school, leadership is critical. Perez, Uline, Johnson, James-Ward&Basom (2008) affirm that an ever growing body of evidence underscores a significant and positive relationship between effective school leadership, student learning, and achievement. Among related factors, leadership is second only to classroom instruction in its contribution to student learning (Leithwood, Seashore, Anderson&Wahlstrom, 2004). Moreover, the effects of leadership are greatest within the contexts where they are most needed, that is, “the greater the challenge, the greater the impact of leadership on learning (Leithwood et al., 2004). Hence, in underperforming and in high poverty schools, the need for effective leadership is magnified.

Questions & Answers

how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
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Sherica
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Sherica
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Tamia
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Uday
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Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
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Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Ncpea education leadership review, volume 10, number 2; august 2009. OpenStax CNX. Feb 22, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10710/1.2
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