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Source: National Institute of Statistics (NIS). 2005.

Figure 3. Main countries of origin.

Source: National Institute of Statistics (NIS). 2005.

The number of undocumented people in Spain at the beginning of 2005 was considered to be approximately one million, emphasizing the positive action of the present government who has undertaken a successful process of regularization of 700,000 people in 2005. However, the immigration of undocumented people continues to increase in Spain.

A study, "Immigration in Spain," by the Foundation of Saving Funds (FUNCAS), published in Papeles de Economía (January 2004), predicted that more than one fourth of those who reside in Spain in 2015 will be immigrants. According to the study, in 2015 there will be 11.7 million foreigners, which is 27.4% of Spain’s population; by then that will be about 43 million inhabitants. Spain will take five years to double its present foreign population (2.3 million registered), having in 2008, 4.6 million immigrants, with increasing migrations of other origins than that of Europeans. According to the study, economic consequences are very positive: its rate of activity is 16.5 points over the average Spanish and already represents 5.14% of those affiliated with Social Security. According to a January, 2004 report given in El País , each foreigner sends an average of 322 euros monthly, which is about 2.3 billion euros annually as remittance of the immigrants to their countries. In comparison with Europe, here are data to reflect and compare: in Germany there are 7.3 million foreigners (9% of its population); Austria has a 9.1% of foreigners; Belgium, France, Holland, and England each have around 9%; and Sweden has 11.3% of foreigners.

Madrid has the greatest percentage of immigrants in Spain (13%). It has increased since 1997 from 3% to 13% of immigrants in reference to the total population; but Berlin has 13%, Paris 16%, London 20%, Toronto, Canada has 40%, New York 56%, and Los Angeles 64% of population of immigrants, although many of them are already citizens and legal residents.

And where do immigrants work? Of the 80% of jobs that the Spaniards do not want because of wages and working conditions, 33% are in the farming sector and collection of harvests, 20% are in domestic work and attention to the sick and elderly, 15% in construction, 12% in the catering business (kitchen/waiting), and 20% in other jobs. Figure 4 demonstrates types of immigrant positions.

Figure 4. Jobs of immigrants.

Source: National Institute of Statistics (NIS).

The height of the islam phobia after september 11, 2001 and march 11, 2004

Given the height of fear against Islam in the last decade that has increased considerably after the terrorism attack of September 11, 2001, on New York, and the criminal attempt of March 11, 2004, in Madrid, the dialogue between Islam and Christianity has become one of the greater challenges of 21 st century. The terrorist massacre of March 11 in Madrid terrified the minds and hearts, not only of the Madrilenians and Spaniards, but of all people of good will in the world. Pain, rage, disgust, physical, and moral sentencing were, and still are the feelings shaped deeply in the spoken silence, in symbolic fires, and in the massive rituals of symbolic rebellion and fraternal communion with the victims. There will be in the history of Spain a before and after this date; a date with limits and symbolism that began with the televising of the horror of September 11 in New York. In those three diachronic years (2001-04), there was a war in Arabic territory, an invasion, thousands of deaths, as much of crossed Christians and Islamic fanatics with the hatred of violent Jews and Palestinians. In this cruel and fratricidal atmosphere, within a structure of inequality and world-wide injustice between few very rich countries (mainly western), and between many very poor countries, it is very difficult to construct a world with peace, justice, freedom, democracy, solidarity, equality, and brotherhood. Nevertheless, that is the human obligation and destiny if the human species wants to survive in a single world and common globalized home in justice and freedom, enriched with the plurality of cultures and religions of the world.

Questions & Answers

Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
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Source:  OpenStax, Immigration in the united states and spain: consideration for educational leaders. OpenStax CNX. Dec 20, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11150/1.1
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