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This text is designed to acquaint students with the physical, ecological, social, and political principles of environmental science. Scientific method is used to analyze and understand the interrelationships between humans and the natural environment. This test shows how ecological realities and the material desire of humans often clash, leading to environmental degradation and pollution.

The flow of energy 

Introduction

Energy is the ability to do work . Work is done when a force is applied to an object over a distance. Any moving object has kinetic energy or energy of motion, and it thus can do work. Similarly, work has to be done on an object to change its kinetic energy. The kinetic energy of an object of mass m size 12{m} {} and speed v size 12{v} {} is given by the relation E = 1 / 2 mv 2 size 12{E=1/2 ital "mv" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} .

Sometimes energy can be stored and used at a later time. For example, a compressed spring and water held back by a dam both have the potential to do work. They are said to possess potential energy . When the spring or water is released its potential energy is transformed into kinetic energy and other forms of energy such as heat. The energy associated to the gravitational force near the surface of the earth is potential energy. Other forms of energy are really combinations of kinetic and potential energy. Chemical energy, for example, is the electrical potential energy stored in atoms. Heat energy is a combination of the potential and kinetic energy of the particles in a substance.

Forms of energy

Mechanical energy puts something in motion. It moves cars and lifts elevators. A machine uses mechanical energy to do work. The mechanical energy of a system is the sum of its kinetic and potential energy. Levers, which need a fulcrum to operate, are the simplest type of machine. Wheels, pulleys and inclined planes are the basic elements of most machines. 

Chemical energy is the energy stored in molecules and chemical compounds, and is found in food, wood, coal, petroleum and other fuels. When the chemical bonds are broken, either by combustion or other chemical reactions, the stored chemical energy is released in the form of heat or light. For example, muscle cells contain glycogen. When the muscle does work the glycogen is broken down into glucose. When the chemical energy in the glucose is transferred to the muscle fibers some of the energy goes into the surroundings as heat.

Electrical energy is produced when unbalanced forces between electrons and protons in atoms create moving electrons called electric currents. For example, when we spin a copper wire through the poles of a magnet we induce the motion of electrons in the wire and produce electricity. Electricity can be used to perform work such as lighting a bulb, heating a cooking element on a stove or powering a motor. Note that electricity is a "secondary" source of energy. That means other sources of energy are needed to produce electricity.

 

Radiant energy is carried by waves. Changes in the internal energy of particles cause the atoms to emit energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation which includes visible light, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, infrared (IR) radiation, microwaves, radio waves, gamma rays, and X-rays. Electromagnetic radiation from the sun, particularly light, is of utmost importance in environmental systems because biogeochemical cycles and virtually all other processes on earth are driven by them.

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Ap environmental science. OpenStax CNX. Sep 25, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10548/1.2
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