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More recently, this team has also been in the forefront of federating repositories. While a solid foundation within an institution may be essential for the longevity and sustainability of the material, from the point of view of a researcher the location of a dataset is irrelevant. A researcher, or indeed any user, wants to be able to locate, access, reuse and combine datasets independently of where they happen to be managed. The eCrystals Federation is establishing an international partnership of crystallography data repositories implemented using heterogeneous technologies, with the aim of integrating them into a broader framework for the curation and dissemination of crystallographic data.

There is also a recognised need for linking research publications in institutional repositories with the primary scientific datasets on which the research is based, which will in general be held in separate repositories such as the ones described here. A number of projects – for example StORe and CLADDIER – have been investigating the potential for such linkage.

Repositories of workflows

There is a need to curate scientific processes as well as the data. myExperiment uses digital repository systems to curate and share scientific workflows as part of a social networking environment in which researchers can annotate, discuss and execute these workflows. Initially developed as a community resource for Taverna users, the scope of myExperiment has expanded to incorporate users of other workflow systems.

myExperiment is more than a website for sharing these objects – it addresses directly many of the issues around publication in more traditional digital repositories, including object versioning, and – importantly for a repository of published artefacts – author attribution and credit, making use of the trust models implicit in the Web 2.0 world. Workflows are just as much an intellectual creation of someone’s research as a traditional publication. myExperiment is currently being enhanced as a result of further JISC funding, to support additional content types, and provide a richer range of functionality, such as user-defined vocabularies for more effective tagging and discovery, and a mechanism for better expressing relationships between items in the repository, which can be used for (e.g.) provenance capture.

Repositories within workflows

The RepoMMan project developed an environment that allowed users to interact with a repository as part of their natural workflow. The repository is not just viewed as a stand-alone “silo” of information into which researchers explicitly deposit completed research outputs (and then perhaps forget about them), but is rather a tool that supports researchers by providing services for managing digital content throughout their research activities, from initial conception and experimental work through to archiving and publication. This was implemented by using a workflow engine to orchestrate web services supporting common repository-related tasks.

Although RepoMMan was developed in the context of creating and managing documents rather than complex material and research data, this restriction is not essential. Indeed, this pioneering work is being continued in other current projects, notably Hydra , which is developing a Scholar’s Workbench with a repository at its core, and CLIF , which is investigating the repository as an embedded part of an environment supporting the lifecycle of digital content in various forms.

Repositories as virtual research environments

The term Virtual Research Environment (VRE) covers a range of different systems, and this is not the place for a definitive definition. However, as virtually all research deals with data in some form, a repository is likely to be an important component of any such environment.

An example is provided by the eSciDoc system, one of the aims of which was to provide a digital library/archive ensuring permanent access to the variety of research outputs of the Max Planck Society (MPG) . For the present purposes, however, more interesting is its use as a generic framework for building virtual research environments for specific research communities within the MPG .

eSciDoc provides a generic infrastructure and a rich set of services , built around a digital repository, to support the entire lifecycle of a research project, including visualisation, manipulation, processing and publication of the various information objects used by researchers. This framework is used to develop “ solutions ”, which are researcher-centric applications for supporting particular research communities; a number of these have been developed by the library service of the MPG .

eSciDoc is a system with very rich functionality and potential; in consequence, developing these solutions for specific communities requires a significant amount of programming effort. At the other end of the spectrum, the Islandora project is developing a VRE framework based around the Fedora repository system, which like eSciDoc allows distinct environments to be created for individual research groups around a common repository infrastructure. It is however a much more lightweight solution, developed in the form of plug-ins for an open source content management system, and allows new environments to be created in rapid and agile fashion.

A final example illustrates the potential synergies between repositories and wider e-infrastructure technologies, specifically the gLite grid middleware. The gCube system allows the ad hoc creation of ad hoc data-centric virtual research environments that are tailored to the needs of specific resource groups, and built on top of gLite -based grid infrastructures such as EGEE [will add link to Steve Newhouse’s chapter here]. These environments provide virtual repositories that allow pre-existing data resources, diverse in terms of formats and metadata standards, to be combined, manipulated and annotated.

Summary: the value of repositories in research

We have seen how repositories have evolved greatly from their beginnings as a “home” for research papers, both in terms of the material that they hold and the uses to which they are put, and our examples are moreover far from exhaustive. Crucially, repositories are being integrated with broader processes and infrastructures, not only within research groups and institutions, but globally. In particular, the architecture of the web is being exploited to facilitate the exposure and re-use of digital material in repositories. This movement towards a more joined up world may be expected to continue, making use of approaches such as Linked Data , which aims to use the web, and in particular Semantic Web , technologies, to forge connections between related data, leading to a vision of a digital ecosystem in which repositories form a key component.

Questions & Answers

how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
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what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
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Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Research in a connected world. OpenStax CNX. Nov 22, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10677/1.12
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