<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Models of the atom

Match the information in column A, with the key discoverer in column B.

Column A Column B
Discovery of electrons and the plum pudding model Niels Bohr
Arrangement of electrons Marie Curie and her husband, Pierre
Atoms as the smallest building block of matter Ancient Greeks
Discovery of the nucleus JJ Thomson
Discovery of radiation Rutherford

Atomic mass and diameter

It is difficult sometimes to imagine the size of an atom, or its mass, because we cannot see an atom and also because we are not used to working with such small measurements.

How heavy is an atom?

It is possible to determine the mass of a single atom in kilograms. But to do this, you would need very modern mass spectrometers and the values you would get would be very clumsy and difficult to use. The mass of a carbon atom, for example, is about 1 , 99 × 10 - 26 kg , while the mass of an atom of hydrogen is about 1 , 67 × 10 - 27 kg . Looking at these very small numbers makes it difficult to compare how much bigger the mass of one atom is when compared to another.

To make the situation simpler, scientists use a different unit of mass when they are describing the mass of an atom. This unit is called the atomic mass unit (amu). We can abbreviate (shorten) this unit to just 'u'. Scientists use the carbon standard to determine amu. The carbon standard assigns carbon an atomic mass of 12 u. Using the carbon standard the mass of an atom of hydrogen will be 1 u. You can check this by dividing the mass of a carbon atom in kilograms (see above) by the mass of a hydrogen atom in kilograms (you will need to use a calculator for this!). If you do this calculation, you will see that the mass of a carbon atom is twelve times greater than the mass of a hydrogen atom. When we use atomic mass units instead of kilograms, it becomes easier to see this. Atomic mass units are therefore not giving us the actual mass of an atom, but rather its mass relative to the mass of one (carefully chosen) atom in the Periodic Table. Although carbon is the usual element to compare other elements to, oxygen and hydrogen have also been used. The important thing to remember here is that the atomic mass unit is relative to one (carefully chosen) element. The atomic masses of some elements are shown in the table below.

The atomic mass number of some of the elements
Element Atomic mass (u)
Carbon ( C ) 12
Nitrogen ( N ) 14
Bromine ( Br ) 80
Magnesium ( Mg ) 24
Potassium ( K ) 39
Calcium ( Ca ) 40
Oxygen ( O ) 16

The actual value of 1 atomic mass unit is 1 , 67 × 10 - 24 g or 1 , 67 × 10 - 27 kg . This is a very tiny mass!

How big is an atom?

pm stands for picometres . 1 pm = 10 - 12 m

Atomic radius also varies depending on the element. On average, the radius of an atom ranges from 32 pm (Helium) to 225 pm (Caesium). Using different units, 100 pm = 1 Angstrom , and 1 Angstrom = 10 - 10 m . That is the same as saying that 1 Angstrom = 0 , 0000000010 m or that 100 pm = 0 , 0000000010 m ! In other words, the diameter of an atom ranges from 0 , 0000000010 m to 0 , 0000000067 m . This is very small indeed.

The atomic radii given above are for the whole atom (nucleus and electrons). The nucleus itself is even smaller than this by a factor of about 23 000 in uranium and 145 000 in hydrogen. If the nucleus were the size of a golf ball, then the nearest electrons would be about one kilometer away! This should help you realise that the atom is mostly made up of empty space.

Rutherfords alpha-particle scattering experiment

Radioactive elements emit different types of particles. Some of these are positively charged alpha ( α ) particles. Rutherford carried out a series of experiments where he bombarded sheets of gold foil with these particles, to try to get a better understanding of where the positive charge in the atom was. A simplified diagram of his experiment is shown in [link] .

Rutherford's gold foil experiment. Figure (a) shows the path of the α particles after they hit the gold sheet. Figure (b) shows the arrangement of atoms in the gold sheets and the path of the α particles in relation to this.

Rutherford set up his experiment so that a beam of alpha particles was directed at the gold sheets. Behind the gold sheets was a screen made of zinc sulphide. This screen allowed Rutherford to see where the alpha particles were landing. Rutherford knew that the electrons in the gold atoms would not really affect the path of the alpha particles, because the mass of an electron is so much smaller than that of a proton. He reasoned that the positively charged protons would be the ones to repel the positively charged alpha particles and alter their path.

What he discovered was that most of the alpha particles passed through the foil undisturbed and could be detected on the screen directly behind the foil (A). Some of the particles ended up being slightly deflected onto other parts of the screen (B). But what was even more interesting was that some of the particles were deflected straight back in the direction from where they had come (C)! These were the particles that had been repelled by the positive protons in the gold atoms. If the Plum Pudding model of the atom were true then Rutherford would have expected much more repulsion, since the positive charge according to that model is distributed throughout the atom. But this was not the case. The fact that most particles passed straight through suggested that the positive charge was concentrated in one part of the atom only.

Relative atomic mass

Relative atomic mass

Relative atomic mass is the average mass of one atom of all the naturally occurring isotopes of a particular chemical element, expressed in atomic mass units.

The relative atomic mass of an element is the number you will find on the periodic table.

Questions & Answers

how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
The fundamental frequency of a sonometer wire streached by a load of relative density 's'are n¹ and n² when the load is in air and completly immersed in water respectively then the lation n²/na is
Mukesh Reply
Properties of longitudinal waves
Sharoon Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Siyavula textbooks: grade 10 physical science [caps]. OpenStax CNX. Sep 30, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11305/1.7
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Siyavula textbooks: grade 10 physical science [caps]' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask