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The running time of Dijkstra's algorithm on a graph with edges E and vertices V can be expressed as a function of |E| and |V| using the Big-O notation.
The simplest implementation of the Dijkstra's algorithm stores vertices of set Q in an ordinary linked list or array, and operation Extract-Min(Q) is simply a linear search through all vertices in Q. In this case, the running time is O(|V|2+|E|).
For sparse graphs, that is, graphs with many fewer than |V|2 edges, Dijkstra's algorithm can be implemented more efficiently by storing the graph in the form of adjacency lists and using a binary heap, pairing heap, or Fibonacci heap as a priority queue to implement the Extract-Min function efficiently. With a binary heap, the algorithm requires O(( | E | + | V | )log | V | ) time (which is dominated by O( | E | log | V | ) assuming every vertex is connected, i.e., ), and the Fibonacci heap improves this to O( | E | + | V | log | V | ).
The functionality of Dijkstra's original algorithm can be extended with a variety of modifications. For example, sometimes it is desirable to present solutions which are less than mathematically optimal. To obtain a ranked list of less-than-optimal solutions, the optimal solution is first calculated. A single edge appearing in the optimal solution is removed from the graph, and the optimum solution to this new graph is calculated. Each edge of the original solution is suppressed in turn and a new shortest-path calculated. The secondary solutions are then ranked and presented after the first optimal solution.
OSPF (open shortest path first) is a well known real-world implementation of Dijkstra's algorithm used in Internet routing.
Unlike Dijkstra's algorithm, the Bellman-Ford algorithm can be used on graphs with negative edge weights, as long as the graph contains no negative cycle reachable from the source vertex s. (The presence of such cycles means there is no shortest path, since the total weight becomes lower each time the cycle is traversed.)
The A* algorithm is a generalization of Dijkstra's algorithm that cuts down on the size of the subgraph that must be explored, if additional information is available that provides a lower-bound on the "distance" to the target.
(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)
Breadth-first search (BFS) is a graph search algorithm that begins at the root node and explores all the neighboring nodes. Then for each of those nearest nodes, it explores their unexplored neighbor nodes, and so on, until it finds the goal.
BFS is a uninformed search method that aims to expand and examine all nodes of a graph systematically in search of a solution. In other words, it exhaustively searches the entire graph without considering the goal until it finds it. It does not use a heuristic.
From the standpoint of the algorithm, all child nodes obtained by expanding a node are added to a FIFO queue. In typical implementations, nodes that have not yet been examined for their neighbors are placed in some container (such as a queue or linked list) called "open" and then once examined are placed in the container "closed".
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