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( 9 y ) 4 = 9 ( y 4 ) Both represent the same product .

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Practice set b

Fill in the ( ) to make each statement true. Use the associative properties.

( 9 + 2 ) + 5 = 9 + ( )

2 + 5

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x + ( 5 + y ) = ( ) + y

x + 5

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( 11 a ) 6 = 11 ( )

a 6

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[ ( 7 m 2 ) ( m + 3 ) ] ( m + 4 ) = ( 7 m 2 ) [ ( ) ( ) ]

( m + 3 ) ( m + 4 )

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Sample set c

Simplify (rearrange into a simpler form): 5 x 6 b 8 a c 4 .

According to the commutative property of multiplication, we can make a series of consecutive switches and get all the numbers together and all the letters together.

5 6 8 4 x b a c 960 x b a c Multiply the numbers . 960 a b c x By convention, we will, when possible, write all letters in alphabetical order .

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Practice set c

Simplify each of the following quantities.

6 b 8 a c z 4 5

960 a b c z

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4 p 6 q r 3 ( a + b )

72 p q r ( a + b )

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The distributive properties

When we were first introduced to multiplication we saw that it was developed as a description for repeated addition.

4 + 4 + 4 = 3 4

Notice that there are three 4’s, that is, 4 appears 3 times . Hence, 3 times 4.
We know that algebra is generalized arithmetic. We can now make an important generalization.

When a number a is added repeatedly n times, we have
a + a + a + + a a appears n times
Then, using multiplication as a description for repeated addition, we can replace
a + a + a + + a n times with n a

For example:

x + x + x + x can be written as 4 x since x is repeatedly added 4 times.

x + x + x + x = 4 x

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r + r can be written as 2 r since r is repeatedly added 2 times.

r + r = 2 r

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The distributive property involves both multiplication and addition. Let’s rewrite 4 ( a + b ) . We proceed by reading 4 ( a + b ) as a multiplication: 4 times the quantity ( a + b ) . This directs us to write

4 ( a + b ) = ( a + b ) + ( a + b ) + ( a + b ) + ( a + b ) = a + b + a + b + a + b + a + b

Now we use the commutative property of addition to collect all the a ' s together and all the b ' s together.

4 ( a + b ) = a + a + a + a 4 a ' s + b + b + b + b 4 b ' s

Now, using multiplication as a description for repeated addition, we have

4 ( a + b ) = 4 a + 4 b

We have distributed the 4 over the sum to both a and b .

The product of four and the expression, a plus b, is equal to four a plus four b. The distributive property is shown by the arrows from four to each term of expression a plus b in the product.

The distributive property

a ( b + c ) = a b + a c ( b + c ) a = a b + a c

The distributive property is useful when we cannot or do not wish to perform operations inside parentheses.

Sample set d

Use the distributive property to rewrite each of the following quantities.

Practice set d

What property of real numbers justifies
a ( b + c ) = ( b + c ) a ?

the commutative property of multiplication

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Use the distributive property to rewrite each of the following quantities.

The identity properties

Additive identity

The number 0 is called the additive identity since when it is added to any real number, it preserves the identity of that number. Zero is the only additive identity.
For example, 6 + 0 = 6 .

Multiplicative identity

The number 1 is called the multiplicative identity since when it multiplies any real number, it preserves the identity of that number. One is the only multiplicative identity.
For example 6 1 = 6 .

We summarize the identity properties as follows.

ADDITIVE IDENTITY PROPERTY MULTIPLICATIVE IDENTITY PROPERTY If a is a real number, then If a is a real number, then a + 0 = a and 0 + a = a a 1 = a and 1 a = a

The inverse properties

Additive inverses

When two numbers are added together and the result is the additive identity, 0, the numbers are called additive inverses of each other. For example, when 3 is added to 3 the result is 0, that is, 3 + ( 3 ) = 0 . The numbers 3 and 3 are additive inverses of each other.

Multiplicative inverses

When two numbers are multiplied together and the result is the multiplicative identity, 1, the numbers are called multiplicative inverses of each other. For example, when 6 and 1 6 are multiplied together, the result is 1, that is, 6 1 6 = 1 . The numbers 6 and 1 6 are multiplicative inverses of each other.

We summarize the inverse properties as follows.

    The inverse properties

  1. If a is any real number, then there is a unique real number a , such that
    a + ( a ) = 0 and a + a = 0
    The numbers a and a are called additive inverses of each other.
  2. If a is any nonzero real number, then there is a unique real number 1 a such that
    a 1 a = 1 and 1 a a = 1
    The numbers a and 1 a are called multiplicative inverses of each other.

Expanding quantities

When we perform operations such as 6 ( a + 3 ) = 6 a + 18 , we say we are expanding the quantity 6 ( a + 3 ) .

Exercises

Use the commutative property of addition and multiplication to write expressions for an equal number for the following problems. You need not perform any calculations.

( x + 16 ) ( a + 7 )

( a + 7 ) ( x + 16 )

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5 ( 6 h + 1 )

( 6 h + 1 ) 5

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k ( 10 a b )

( 10 a b ) k

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( 16 ) ( 4 )

( 4 ) ( 16 )

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Simplify using the commutative property of multiplication for the following problems. You need not use the distributive property.

1 u 3 r 2 z 5 m 1 n

30 m n r u z

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6 d 4 e 1 f 2 ( g + 2 h )

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( 1 2 ) d ( 1 4 ) e ( 1 2 ) a

1 16 a d e

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3 ( a + 6 ) 2 ( a 9 ) 6 b

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1 ( x + 2 y ) ( 6 + z ) 9 ( 3 x + 5 y )

9 ( x + 2 y ) ( 6 + z ) ( 3 x + 5 y )

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For the following problems, use the distributive property to expand the quantities.

z ( x + 9 w )

x z + 9 w z

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( 8 + 2 f ) g

8 g + 2 f g

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15 x ( 2 y + 3 z )

30 x y + 45 x z

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z ( x + y + m )

x z + y z + m z

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( x + 10 ) ( a + b + c )

a x + b x + c x + 10 a + 10 b + 10 c

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Use a calculator. 21.5 ( 16.2 a + 3.8 b + 0.7 c )

348.3 a + 81.7 b + 15.05 c

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2 z t ( L m + 8 k )

2 L m z t + 16 k z t

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Exercises for review

( [link] ) Find the value of 4 2 + 5 ( 2 4 6 ÷ 3 ) 2 5 .

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( [link] ) Is the statement 3 ( 5 3 3 5 ) + 6 2 3 4 < 0 true or false?

false

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( [link] ) Draw a number line that extends from 2 to 2 and place points at all integers between and including 2 and 3.

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( [link] ) Replace the with the appropriate relation symbol ( < , > ) . 7 3 .

<

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( [link] ) What whole numbers can replace x so that the statement 2 x < 2 is true?

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Questions & Answers

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Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
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s. Reply
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s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
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Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
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Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
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so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
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s. Reply
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Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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Source:  OpenStax, Elementary algebra. OpenStax CNX. May 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10614/1.3
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