<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

The Group 1 metals have a particular name: the alkali metals. This is due to the formation of alkali (basic) solutions upon their reaction with water. [link] lists the derivation of the names of the alkali metals.

Derivation of the names of each of the alkali metal elements.
Element Symbol Name
Lithium Li Greek lithos meaning stone
Sodium Na Latin natrium or Arabic natrun meaning soda
Potassium K From the Latin kalium , and from Arabic al-qali meaning plant ashes
Rubidium Rb Latin rubidus meaning deepest red
Caesium Cs Latin caesius meaning blueish grey
Francium Fr Named after France
Caesium is the international spelling standardized by the IUPAC, but in the United States it is more commonly spelled as cesium.

Discovery

Lithium

Petalite (Li 2 O.Al 2 O 3 .8SiO 2 ) was first discovered in 1800 by José Bonifácio de Andrade e Silva ( [link] ), who discovered the mineral in a Swedish mine on the island of Utö. However, it was not until 1817 that Johan August Arfwedson ( [link] ) working in the laboratory of Jöns Jakob Berzelius ( [link] ), discovered the presence of a new element while analyzing petalite ore. Named from the Greek lithos meaning stone reflected its discovery in a mineral, as opposed to sodium and potassium, which had been discovered in plant tissue; its name was later standardized as lithium. The element was not isolated until 1821, when William Brande ( [link] ) isolated the element by performing electrolysis on lithium oxide, a process previously employed by Sir Humphry Davy to isolate potassium and sodium.

Portuguese statesman and naturalist José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva (1763 - 1838).
Swedish chemist Johan August Arfwedson (1792 - 1841).
Swedish chemist Friherre Jöns Jacob Berzelius (1779 - 1848).
English chemist William Thomas Brande FRS (1788 - 1866).

Sodium

Elemental sodium was first isolated by Sir Humphry Davy ( [link] ) in 1806 by passing an electric current through molten sodium hydroxide.

British chemist and inventor Sir Humphry Davy FRS (1778 - 1829).

Potassium

The name kalium was taken from the word alkali , which came from Arabic al qali meaning the calcined ashes . The name potassium was made from the English word potash , meaning an alkali extracted in a pot from the ash of burnt wood or tree leaves. Potassium metal was discovered in 1807 by Sir Humphry Davy ( [link] ), who derived it from caustic potash (KOH), by the use of electrolysis of the molten salt.

Rubidium

Rubidium was discovered using spectroscopy in 1861 by Robert Bunsen ( [link] ) and Gustav Kirchhoff ( [link] ) in the mineral lepidolite. The first rubidium metal was produced by Bunsen from the reaction of rubidium chloride (RbCl) with potassium.

German chemist Robert Wilhelm Eberhard Bunsen (1811 - 1899).
German physicist Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (1824 - 1887).

Caesium

Like Rubidium, caesium was discovered spectroscopically by Bunsen ( [link] ) and Kirchhoff ( [link] ) in 1860 in mineral water from Dürkheim, Germany. The residues of 44,000 liters of mineral water yielded several grams of a caesium salt. Its identification was based upon the bright blue lines in its spectrum and it was the first element discovered by spectral analysis. The first caesium metal was subsequently produced in 1882 by electrolysis of caesium chloride.

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
Abhi
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
hmm
Abhi
is it a question of log
Abhi
🤔.
Abhi
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
hii
Uday
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry of the main group elements. OpenStax CNX. Aug 20, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11124/1.25
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Chemistry of the main group elements' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask