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A legitimate question to ponder is why the “imposition from above” model was successful in the context of the Internet, but not in DLs. A look at the history on the Internet reveals a key factor that initial deployment and ramp-up occurred within a tightly scoped community, academic institutions and (primarily defense-related) research labs. The infrastructure had a long percolation period in this context before its subsequent mass popularization. This is quite different than the DL infrastructure work, which from the beginning was motivated by visions of widespread grassroots dissemination inspired by scenarios such as that articulated by then Vice President Gore in his “schoolchild in Carthage, Tennessee plugs into the Library of Congress” speeches ( (External Link) ). Page 3, footnote 5 of Lagoze, Lost Identity: The Assimilation of Digital Libraries into the Web .

Organizations that run, like governments

When we look closely at civic infrastructure, we see that the physical infrastructure and service infrastructure are dependent on organizations for maintenance and operation. In fact, if it is important that infrastructure last and be open, then the organization that maintains it is more important than the item itself. A good organization that builds and maintains bridges is more important than any one bridge. A bridge might be built, but it won’t be safe to cross if there aren’t regular safety checks and engineering support. It thus follows that good infrastructure includes the management, staffing, ongoing budgets, and support equipment that keep it all working. If we think of the Library as a traditional form of research infrastructure, we can see the importance of professional organization. The buildings and the books are important, but the Library can’t work as infrastructure without professional staff organized and funded to maintain services.

That said, describing organizations as infrastructure seems to push the definition. We tend to think of infrastructure as what you can touch and use, not the maintenance organization. One can see this in the ongoing politics of physical infrastructure renewal which are stable entertainment for those interested in municipal politics and stimulus packages. On a regular basis there are calls for infrastructure renewal like the dramatic and “hard-hitting” 1983 America In Ruins which has the ruins of a Roman forum on the cover. The cover says it all: the American Empire will fall apart as the Roman one did if there isn’t the political will to invest in infrastructure renewal. The report, while documenting the state of national infrastructure in the US, starts mostly with political recommendations to create the sustained organization and attention needed.

We might ask why calls for renewal are needed? The reason is that funding bodies like to build new infrastructure, but don’t like to budget for its ongoing maintenance. What funders can see is appreciated; maintaining infrastructure that is so expected that it becomes transparent is a thankless job. Funding new stuff looks progressive; maintaining infrastructure doesn’t impress.

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
I'm not good at math so would you help me
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Online humanities scholarship: the shape of things to come. OpenStax CNX. May 08, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11199/1.1
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