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The bool Data Type

The C++ bool type can have two states expressed by the built-in constants true (which converts to an integral one) and false (which converts to an integral zero). All three names are keywords. This data type is most useful when a program must examine a specific condition and, as a result of the condition being either true or false, take a prescribed course of action.

Arithmetic operators

Most programs perform arithmetic calculations. Arithmetic operators are used to perform mathematical calculations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division in C++.

Arithmetic operators

A simple arithmetic expression consists of an arithmetic operator connecting two operands in the form:

operand operator operand

Examples:

3 + 7

18 – 3

12.62 + 9.8

12.6/2.0

Example

#include<iostream.h>

int main()

{

cout<<"15.0 plus 2.0 equals "<<(15.0 + 2.0)<<'\n'

<<"15.0 minus 2.0 equals "<<(15.0 - 2.0)<<'\n'

<<"15.0 times 2.0 equals "<<(15.0 * 2.0)<<'\n'

<<"15.0 divided by 2.0 equals "<<(15.0 / 2.0)<<'\n';

return 0;

}

The output of the above program:

15.0 plus 2.0 equals 17

15.0 minus 2.0 equals 13

15.0 times 2.0 equals 30

15.0 divided by 2.0 equals 7.5

Integer division

The division of two integers yields integer result. Thus the value of 15/2 is 7.

Modulus % operator produces the remainder of an integer division.

Example:

9%4 is 1

17%3 is 2

14%2 is 0

Operator precedence and associativity

Expressions containing multiple operators are evaluated by the priority, or precedence, of the operators.

Operator precedence defines the order in which an expression evaluates when several different operators are present. C++ have specific rules to determine the order of evaluation. The easiest to remember is that multiplication and division happen before addition and subtraction.

The following table lists both precedence and associativity of the operators.

Precedence and associativity of the operators

Example: Let us use the precedence rules to evaluate an expression containing operators of different precedence, such as 8 + 5*7%2*4. Because the multiplication and modulus operators have a higher precedence than the addition operator, these two operations are evaluated first (P2), using their left-to-right associativity, before the addition is evaluated (P3). Thus, the complete expression is evaluated as:

Expression evaluation

Expression types

An expression is any combination of operators and operands that can be evaluated to yield a value. An expression that contains only integer values as operands is called an integer expression, and the result of the expression is an integer value. Similarly, an expression containing only floating-point values (single and double precision) as operands is called a floating-point expression, and the result of the expression is a floating point value (the term real expression is also used).

Variables and declaration statements

One of the most important aspects of programming is storing and manipulating the values stored in variables . A variable is simply a name chosen by the programmer that is used to refer to computer storage locations. The term variable is used because the value stored in the variable can change, or vary.

Questions & Answers

what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Programming fundamentals in c++. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10788/1.1
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