<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Structure of a long bone

Parts of a long bone

Epiphysis: The head of each end of a long bone covered with hyaline cartilage and consisting largely of spongy bone .

Diaphysis: Cylindrical shaft of a long bone composed of hard compact bone on the outside

Periosteum: The membrane of dense fibrous connective tissue which surrounds the outside surface of the shaft of a long bone. It has blood vessels which enables it to nourish the bone and repair injuries. It also provides a surface for the attachment of muscles, by means of tendons and ligaments.

Marrow cavity: This is filled with yellow marrow which consists largely of fat.

Endosteum: The delicate connective tissue layer lining the inside surface of compact bone.

Cancellous/spongy bone : Found in the epiphysis of long bones and contain red marrow.

Trabeculae: The struts in the network of irregular bony plates in the epiphysis of bones which transfer stresses from the epiphysis to the diaphysis which has a much thicker layer ofcompact bone and resists stress better.

Red bone marrow: Found in the spaces between the trabeculae in spongy bone. This is where the red blood cells are made at the rate of 2 -3 million per second. White blood celltypes are also produced here.


  • Long bones have a central shaft and two heads, one at each end. An example is the femur , which is the largest bone in the body.
  • Flat bones have two layers of compact bone covering a layer of spongy bone on the inside, for example the shoulder blades .
  • Irregular bones and short bones have a thin layer of compact bone covering spongy bone on the inside, for example vertebrae of the spine and the small bones in the hands and feet.

Practical investigation

Experiment A:

Aim: To investigate the role of the inorganic and organic components of bone

Apparatus: Exp A.: 2 small chicken bones

2 test tubes

Dilute hydrochloric acid



  1. Label 2 test tubes with your initials and A and B. Put a bone in each tube.

2.Cover Bone A with water and Bone B with dilute hydrochloric acid. Leave for a few days. The acid will dissolve out the mineral component of the bone leavingbehind the organic part

3.Take out Bone A and dry it.

4.Use tweezers to take Bone B out of the acid. Rinse it under the tap and dry it.

5.Compare the two bones and not down how they appear and whether they are soft or hard, flexible or brittle

Experiment B

Apparatus: 1 small chicken bone

Pipe clay triangle or wire gauze on a tripod stand

Bunsen burner or Methylated spirits burner


1. Place the chicken bone (Bone C) on a pipe triangle or wire gauze on a tripod stand

2.Roast the bone strongly for 10 minutes. Roasting will burn off the organic component of bone ( mainly the protein collagen) leaving behind the mineralpart

3.Allow the bone to cool down completely before you touch it.

4.Describe the appearance of Bone C stating whether it is soft or hard, flexible or brittle


1.What are the main inorganic components of bone?

2.What changes have occurred in Bone A?

3.What properties have been removed from the bone with the loss of it inorganic components?

4.Which deficiency disease can give similar results on bones in children?

5.What is the role of Bone B in this experiment?

6.What protein makes up the main organic component of bone?

7. What changes took place in Bone C during the roasting process?

8. What properties have been removed from Bone C with the loss of its organic component?

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
I know this work
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
is it a question of log
I rally confuse this number And equations too I need exactly help
But this is not salma it's Faiza live in lousvile Ky I garbage this so I am going collage with JCTC that the of the collage thank you my friends
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Comment on the ozone depletion over the period of 1982 to 1996
Mpho Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, Siyavula: life sciences grade 10. OpenStax CNX. Apr 11, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11410/1.3
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Siyavula: life sciences grade 10' conversation and receive update notifications?