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Structure of a long bone

Parts of a long bone

Epiphysis: The head of each end of a long bone covered with hyaline cartilage and consisting largely of spongy bone .

Diaphysis: Cylindrical shaft of a long bone composed of hard compact bone on the outside

Periosteum: The membrane of dense fibrous connective tissue which surrounds the outside surface of the shaft of a long bone. It has blood vessels which enables it to nourish the bone and repair injuries. It also provides a surface for the attachment of muscles, by means of tendons and ligaments.

Marrow cavity: This is filled with yellow marrow which consists largely of fat.

Endosteum: The delicate connective tissue layer lining the inside surface of compact bone.

Cancellous/spongy bone : Found in the epiphysis of long bones and contain red marrow.

Trabeculae: The struts in the network of irregular bony plates in the epiphysis of bones which transfer stresses from the epiphysis to the diaphysis which has a much thicker layer ofcompact bone and resists stress better.

Red bone marrow: Found in the spaces between the trabeculae in spongy bone. This is where the red blood cells are made at the rate of 2 -3 million per second. White blood celltypes are also produced here.

TYPES OF BONES

  • Long bones have a central shaft and two heads, one at each end. An example is the femur , which is the largest bone in the body.
  • Flat bones have two layers of compact bone covering a layer of spongy bone on the inside, for example the shoulder blades .
  • Irregular bones and short bones have a thin layer of compact bone covering spongy bone on the inside, for example vertebrae of the spine and the small bones in the hands and feet.

Practical investigation

Experiment A:

Aim: To investigate the role of the inorganic and organic components of bone

Apparatus: Exp A.: 2 small chicken bones

2 test tubes

Dilute hydrochloric acid

Towel

Method:

  1. Label 2 test tubes with your initials and A and B. Put a bone in each tube.

2.Cover Bone A with water and Bone B with dilute hydrochloric acid. Leave for a few days. The acid will dissolve out the mineral component of the bone leavingbehind the organic part

3.Take out Bone A and dry it.

4.Use tweezers to take Bone B out of the acid. Rinse it under the tap and dry it.

5.Compare the two bones and not down how they appear and whether they are soft or hard, flexible or brittle

Experiment B

Apparatus: 1 small chicken bone

Pipe clay triangle or wire gauze on a tripod stand

Bunsen burner or Methylated spirits burner

Method:

1. Place the chicken bone (Bone C) on a pipe triangle or wire gauze on a tripod stand

2.Roast the bone strongly for 10 minutes. Roasting will burn off the organic component of bone ( mainly the protein collagen) leaving behind the mineralpart

3.Allow the bone to cool down completely before you touch it.

4.Describe the appearance of Bone C stating whether it is soft or hard, flexible or brittle

Questions

1.What are the main inorganic components of bone?

2.What changes have occurred in Bone A?

3.What properties have been removed from the bone with the loss of it inorganic components?

4.Which deficiency disease can give similar results on bones in children?

5.What is the role of Bone B in this experiment?

6.What protein makes up the main organic component of bone?

7. What changes took place in Bone C during the roasting process?

8. What properties have been removed from Bone C with the loss of its organic component?

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
I know this work
salma
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
Abhi
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
hmm
Abhi
is it a question of log
Abhi
🤔.
Abhi
I rally confuse this number And equations too I need exactly help
salma
But this is not salma it's Faiza live in lousvile Ky I garbage this so I am going collage with JCTC that the of the collage thank you my friends
salma
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
hii
Uday
hi
salma
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
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Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
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No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
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how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
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Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
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. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
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what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
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types of nano material
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I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
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what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
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I'm interested in nanotube
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what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
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what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Siyavula: life sciences grade 10. OpenStax CNX. Apr 11, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11410/1.3
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