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Watch glass, bunsen burner, methanol, bamboo sticks, metal salts (e.g. NaCl , CuCl 2 , CaCl 2 , KCl , etc. ) and metal powders (e.g. copper, magnesium, zinc, iron, etc.)


For each salt or powder do the following:
  1. Dip a clean bamboo stick into the methanol
  2. Dip the stick into the salt or powder
  3. Wave the stick through the flame from the bunsen burner. DO NOT hold the stick in the flame, but rather wave it back and forth through the flame.
  4. Observe what happens


Record your results in a table, listing the metal salt and the colour of the flame.


You should have observed different colours for each of the metal salts and powders that you tested.

The above experiment on flame tests relates to the line emission spectra of the metals. These line emission spectra are a direct result of the arrangement of the electrons in metals.

Energy diagrams and electrons

  1. Draw Aufbau diagrams to show the electron configuration of each of the following elements:
    1. magnesium
    2. potassium
    3. sulphur
    4. neon
    5. nitrogen
  2. Use the Aufbau diagrams you drew to help you complete the following table:
    Element No. of energy levels No. of core electrons No. of valence electrons Electron configuration (standard notation)
  3. Rank the elements used above in order of increasing reactivity . Give reasons for the order you give.

Group work : building a model of an atom

Earlier in this chapter, we talked about different 'models' of the atom. In science, one of the uses of models is that they can help us to understand the structure of something that we can't see. In the case of the atom, models help us to build a picture in our heads of what the atom looks like.

Models are often simplified. The small toy cars that you may have played with as a child are models. They give you a good idea of what a real car looks like, but they are much smaller and much simpler. A model cannot always be absolutely accurate and it is important that we realise this so that we don't build up a false idea about something.

In groups of 4-5, you are going to build a model of an atom. Before you start, think about these questions:

  • What information do I know about the structure of the atom? (e.g. what parts make it up? how big is it?)
  • What materials can I use to represent these parts of the atom as accurately as I can?
  • How will I put all these different parts together in my model?

As a group, share your ideas and then plan how you will build your model. Once you have built your model, discuss the following questions:

  • Does our model give a good idea of what the atom actually looks like?
  • In what ways is our model inaccurate ? For example, we know that electrons move around the atom's nucleus, but in your model, it might not have been possible for you to show this.
  • Are there any ways in which our model could be improved?

Now look at what other groups have done. Discuss the same questions for each of the models you see and record your answers.

The following simulation allows you to build an atom
run demo

Build an atom simulation

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Mueller Reply
What makes metals better to use as wires than non-metals? (please link to bonding type)??? HELP
Yash Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry grade 10 [caps]. OpenStax CNX. Jun 13, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11303/1.4
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