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More generally, reliance on nuclear power will be waning notably over the next 25 years even though China and Britain are continuing to build reactors. Almost 200 nuclear reactors are due to be shut down by 2040, according to the annual report of the International Energy Agency. The plans for reactor shutdowns over the next 25 years contrast sharply with that of the period 1974-2014, when only 10 reactors were decommissioned.

We lack the space to discuss in detail many of these very interesting alternative energy resources. It can be said, though, with a very high degree of assurance, that ethanol from corn or almost any food crop is not an answer to any intelligent question. Nor is biodiesel, except for that made by using algae. As we noted before: ethanol from corn (as in U.S.) involves very little if any energy gain and precious little environmental gain. Making ethanol itself requires lots of energy. Also a gallon of ethanol is less useful in internal combustion engines. This is because Ethanol is a 2-carbon molecule. Gasoline is a long-chained molecule with almost 50% higher energy content.

To replace half of diesel fuel use in U.S. with biodiesel would require many millions of acres of cultivation of corn in U.S. and Brazil. The truth is, the negative environmental consequences of ethanol from corn were never considered by Congress in the rush to subsidize ethanol. Example: pouring on fertilizer in Iowa to grow more corn for ethanol has resulted in more pollution of many rivers especially those draining into the Gulf of Mexico.

Perspectives on energy worldwide

- The nations that consume the most energy per capita are #1 Qatar, #2 Iceland and #3, the U.S.

- The nations that have the lowest per capita energy consumption are #1 Bangladesh and #2 Eritrea. All of the lowest 10 are very poor.

- The countries with the highest total energy consumption are #1 the U.S.and #2 China, and Chinese consumption is likely to surpass the U.S. by 2015.

- The country with the highest gasoline prices is Eritrea.

- The nations with lowest gasoline prices are #1 Venezuela and #2 Iran.

- The U.S. state with the most installed wind capacity is Texas with double the capacity of California, in second place.

Energy utilization and energy subsidies in emerging nations

Subsidies to fossil fuel use in many emerging countries are unusually high, leading to extraordinary rates of growth in energy consumption heavy stress on government budgets. And, according to one estimate, subsidies on energy use worldwide were responsible for 36% of global carbon emissions between 1980 and 2010. Pump Aligning , Economist , January 17, 2015, p.70. The subsidies often lead to unexpected outcomes. Over the past 30 years, Indonesia among many other emerging nations has used heavy subsidies on gasoline, diesel fuel and kerosene. The subsidies resulted in artificially low domestic prices for these products, so that consumption grew at very rapid rates. Indonesia in the 70s, 80s and 90s was a major oil exporter, and a charter member of OPEC, dating back to the mid-sixties. By 2012, Indonesia was, as a result of very low prices for domestic energy use, was a net oil importer , and no longer a member of OPEC.

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
I'm not good at math so would you help me
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Economic development for the 21st century. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11747/1.12
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