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We will consider the case of single-phase flow with conservative body forces (e.g., gravitational) and density a single valued function of pressure. The pressure and potential from the body force can be combined into a single potential.

f - 1 ρ p = - Ω w h e r e Ω = p d p ρ - g z

If the change in density is small enough, the potential can be approximated by potential that has the units of pressure.

Ω P ρ , small change in density where P = p - ρ g z

Suppose that the flow is characterized by a certain linear dimension, L , a velocity U , and a density ρ . For example, if we consider the steady flow past an obstacle, L may be it's diameter and U and ρ the velocity and density far from the obstacle. We can make the variables dimensionless with the following

v * = v U , x * x L , t * = U L t , P * = P ρ U 2 * = L , * 2 = L 2 2

The conservative body force, Navier-Stokes equation is made dimensionless with these variables.

ρ D v D t = - P + ( λ + μ ) Θ + μ 2 v ρ U 2 L D v * D t * = - ρ U 2 L * P * + μ U L 2 ( λ / μ + 1 ) * Θ * + μ U L 2 * 2 v * ρ U L μ D v * D t * + * P * = ( λ / μ + 1 ) * Θ * + * 2 v * N R e D v * D t * + * P * = ( λ / μ + 1 ) * Θ * + * 2 v * where N R e = ρ U L μ = ρ U 2 μ U / L

The Reynolds number partitions the Navier -Stokes equation into two parts. The left side or inertial and potential terms, which dominates for large NRe and the right side or viscous terms, which dominates for small NRe. The potential gradient term could have been on the right side if the dimensionless pressure was defined differently, i.e., normalized with respect to ( μ U ) / L , the shear stress rather than kinetic energy. Note that the left side has only first derivatives of the spatial variables while the right side has second derivatives. We will see later that the left side may dominate for flow far from solid objects but the right side becomes important in the vicinity of solid surfaces.

The nature of the flow field can also be seen form the definition of the Reynolds number. The second expression is the ratio of the characteristic kinetic energy and the shear stress.

The alternate form of the dimensionless Navier-Stokes equation with the other definition of dimensionless pressure is as follows.

N R e D V * D t * = - * P * * + ( λ / μ + 1 ) * Θ * + * 2 v * P * * = P μ U / L

Dissipation of energy by viscous forces

If there was no dissipation of mechanical energy during fluid motion then kinetic energy and potential energy can be exchanged but the change in the sum of kinetic and potential energy would be equal to the work done to the system. However, viscous effects result in irreversible conversion of mechanical energy to internal energy or heat. This is known as viscous dissipation of energy. We will identify the components of mechanical energy in a flowing system before embarking on a total energy balance.

The rate that work W is done on fluid in a material volume V with a surface S is the integral of the product of velocity and the force at the surface.

d W d t = s v t ( n ) d S = s v T n d S = v ( v T ) d V

The last integrand is rather complicated and is better treated with index notation.

( v i T i j ) , j = T i j v i , j + v i T i j , j = T i j v i , j + v i ρ D v i D t - ρ f i = T i j v i , j + 1 2 ρ D v 2 D t - ρ f i v i ( v t ) = T : v + 1 2 ρ D v 2 D t - ρ f v

We made use of Cauchy's equation of motion to substitute for the divergence of the stress tensor. The integrals can be rearranged as follows.

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
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Sherica
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Sherica
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Tamia
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
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a perfect square v²+2v+_
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Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
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Embra Reply
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Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
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No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
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is it 3×y ?
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J, combine like terms 7x-4y
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Asali
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what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
Asali
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
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. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
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Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
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Porter
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Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
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what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
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Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
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AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
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Azam
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Transport phenomena. OpenStax CNX. May 24, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11205/1.1
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