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Along with the above mentioned procedures, the ESD committee asked staff members to write positive referrals during the year for students whom they witnessed going above and beyond. The teacher wrote comments on the form and put it in their administrator’s mailboxes. The administrators called those students into their offices and gave the students the form with their added comments, a pass for free ice cream and called the students parents. It was amazing to hear the surprise from a parent when an administrator called home for something positive and to see how much something small like this actually meant to high school student. The added benefit was that the discipline referrals decreased by over 20% from the year before. For an administrator, that equates to time during the school day to focus on other leadership aspects.


The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 has been a major instrument driving the accountability movement of American schools (No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, Pub. L. No. 107-110, 115Stat. 1425.). Each year the standards for NCLB become more stringent. Educators feel the constant pressure to meet the annual yearly progress goals of NCLB. The scores on the standardize test become the obvious accountability measures of the school for the educators, public, and politicians. The scores for the number of students passing the state standardized tests are reported publically and how schools get judged and used as a measurement of a school’s success.

Case study 2

Some educators leading below the surface make it their mission to help these students improve academic performance. The math teachers at a rural middle school created an afternoon tutoring program on Tuesdays and Thursdays. Students were required to sign up for the tutoring prior to attending and parents were required to document how the student would be getting home. Tutoring was offered to all students, but the math teachers targeted some students that showed a need improvement of basic math skills. Student data was used from a variety of sources to create the student list. Parents of students with the greatest need were contacted by mail regarding the program and followed up with a phone call.

The math teachers worked together to create sessions that included math manipulatives, computer programs, and small group instruction. Knowing the students would be hungry after school, they asked parents to bring in snacks for those staying after school. The Parent Teacher Organization (PTO) was asked to provide gift certificates to be used in a drawing at the end of the program.

The tutoring program was very successful with over thirty students participating. The math scores were the best in years. Many students who failed the Standard of Learning math test in the past developed math skills that enabled them to pass the current math test.

While the NCLB has created its long list of challenges for school systems across the country, one of the main benefits of it is that school systems everywhere are paying attention to those students who are considered to be “below the surface”: students with disabilities, children of color, limited English speaking students. At risk students are identified before the school year starts. Those students are conscientiously placed with the teachers who best match their learning styles. Their progress is closely tracked during the year and instead of quietly falling through the cracks, they are pulled out of electives or gym once or twice a week for remediation. This made a tremendous difference with Standards of Learning scores. This is what accountability is all about.

Concluding thoughts

When school leaders settle for the obvious, they only see what is on the surface. As Creighton refers to the 10% of the iceberg that is visible above the water, administrators often narrowly focus on only what they can see. Evidence based decision making and accountability afford school administrators at all levels the opportunity to delve deeper which will allow for more successful school leadership.


Creighton, T (2005). Leading from Below the Surface: A Non-traditional Approach to School Leadership. Thousands Oaks, California: Corwin Press.

No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, Pub. L. No. 107-110, 115Stat. 1425

Questions & Answers

how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
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what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
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a perfect square v²+2v+_
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algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
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J, combine like terms 7x-4y
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how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
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I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
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what is nano technology
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what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
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how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, 21st century theories of education administration. OpenStax CNX. Jul 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10727/1.1
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