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Conceptual definitions


A key issue in this study is the definition of spirituality . It is common to link spirituality with religion. Indeed it is mostly used in that context. From the days of Biblical Abraham, to the writings of Saint Paul, up to the Protestant Reformation spirituality was closely connected with religion. The reformers thought that religion had become too political and sought to free the practice of religion from the ties to earthly institutions. The reformers wanted believers to concentrate on the interior world of faith rather than the exterior world of religious practices. This led, indirectly and unintentionally, to a separation of spirituality from religion (Jamison, 2006). Williams James, in 1902, proposed separating religion from spirituality in order to study personal spirituality (Jamison, 2006).

While many writers discuss religious spiritually, there are writers who explore the elements of spirituality that can be generalized to a secular usage. Often writers associate spirituality with a search for meaning (Carroll, 2001). In her seven part definition of spirituality, Tisdell (2003) stated that in its deepest form spirituality is about meaning-making. Meaning, or purpose, becomes tightly woven into one’s existence and influences other aspects of life (Sawatzky, Ratner,&Chiu, 2005).

In examining the interior world, one is looking both beyond the outside physical world that can be perceived by the senses and within the self that has been formed and influenced by the same senses. Thus one transcends the physical, psychological, or social facets of life (Sawatzky, et al., 2005).

Spirituality is not a passive, inert characteristic. It makes life more than bodily functions and chemical processes (Porter, 1995). The Latin etymology of the word spirituality is life or vigor. Spirituality is not an academic study. It is studied with the purpose of experiencing it. Spirituality is a way of life and not a series of mystical, isolated experiences (Spohn, 1997). How can a person experience spirituality? Are there practices that help a person encounter life’s deepest meanings? The practices or activities are a part of spiritual development. Spiritual development is discovering personal genuineness; finding meaning, purpose, and direction in one’s life; “continually transcending one’s current locus of centricity”; and “developing a greater connectedness to self and others through relationships and union with community” (Estanek, 2006, p. 273).

According to Rose (2001), spirituality involves these three elements: (1) some sort of experience of matters of essential concern dealing with meaning and reason, (2) some exertion in spiritual development, and (3) a life entwined with selfless activities (Rose, 2001). In a discussion with Father Thomas Berry (personal communication, December 22, 2008), a priest in the Congregation of the Passion of Jesus Christ, the term spirituality was described as an effort to identify the world of meaning. He said that a spiritual leader acts for the purpose of the work itself and not for personal gain or benefit

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
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Source:  OpenStax, 21st century theories of education administration. OpenStax CNX. Jul 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10727/1.1
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