<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Explain the importance of organization to the function of the human organism
  • Distinguish between metabolism, anabolism, and catabolism
  • Provide at least two examples of human responsiveness and human movement
  • Compare and contrast growth, differentiation, and reproduction

The different organ systems each have different functions and therefore unique roles to perform in physiology. These many functions can be summarized in terms of a few that we might consider definitive of human life: organization, metabolism, responsiveness, homeostasis, adaptation, movement, development, and reproduction.

Organization

A human body consists of trillions of cells organized in a way that maintains distinct internal compartments. These compartments keep body cells separated from external environmental threats and keep the cells moist and nourished. They also separate internal body fluids from the countless microorganisms that grow on body surfaces, including the lining of certain tracts, or passageways. The intestinal tract, for example, is home to even more bacteria cells than the total of all human cells in the body, yet these bacteria are outside the body and cannot be allowed to circulate freely inside the body.

Cells, for example, have a cell membrane (also referred to as the plasma membrane) that keeps the intracellular environment—the fluids and organelles—separate from the extracellular environment. Blood vessels keep blood inside a closed circulatory system, and nerves and muscles are wrapped in connective tissue sheaths that separate them from surrounding structures. In the chest and abdomen, a variety of internal membranes keep major organs such as the lungs, heart, and kidneys separate from others.

The body’s largest organ system is the integumentary system, which includes the skin and its associated structures, such as hair and nails. The surface tissue of skin is a barrier that protects internal structures and fluids from potentially harmful microorganisms and other toxins.

Metabolism

The first law of thermodynamics holds that energy can neither be created nor destroyed—it can only change form. Your basic function as an organism is to consume (ingest) molecules in the foods you eat, convert some of it into fuel for movement, sustain your body functions, and build and maintain your body structures. There are two types of reactions that accomplish this: anabolism    and catabolism    .

  • Anabolism is the process whereby smaller, simpler molecules are combined into larger, more complex substances. Your body can assemble, by utilizing energy, the complex chemicals it needs by combining small molecules derived from the foods you eat
  • Catabolism is the process by which larger more complex substances are broken down into smaller simpler molecules. Catabolism releases energy. The complex molecules found in foods are broken down so the body can use their parts to assemble the structures and substances needed for life.

Taken together, these two processes are called metabolism. Metabolism is the sum of all anabolic and catabolic reactions that take place in the body ( [link] ). Both anabolism and catabolism occur simultaneously and continuously to keep you alive.

Questions & Answers

information for blood vessels
Sumit Reply
helps pump blood through body
scott
arteries carry blood away from the heart while veins return it to the heart
Reverian
veins have thinner outer walls because blood pressure in them is very low compared to arteries with thicker outer walls to withstand the higher blood pressure.
Oliver
cell, tissue, organ, organism, organ system,
Gheida Reply
please what are the characteristics of a good respiratory system?
Salomon Reply
thin wall ,a moist inner surface ,a huge combined surface area and a rich blood supply.
Nchimunya
Help me am confused what is the cell membrane as a partially permeable membrane
Janelle Reply
it is the ability of a molecules to cross a cell membrane depending on their both size and chemical properties.
Andrews
Based on my previous understanding of biological systems, a cell membrane is a semi-permeable membrane made up of a phospholipids bi-layer. The polar head consisting of phosphate and the hydrophobic end made up of lipids.
Abayomi
Smallest bone of rabbit is
Sahrukh Reply
difference between catebolism and anebolism
Anthvanath Reply
identify the causes of infertility in human beings
Rodrick Reply
Describe how a healthy pregnancy could be maintained
Rodrick
Huaman largest bone
Sahrukh
How I can test DNY
Salamin Reply
Samllest bone
Sahrukh
How can I determine my child
AlfredOfficial Reply
by DNA tests
lasford
thanks
AlfredOfficial
How to test
Salamin
How many bones of 1 year childrean
R.k Reply
208
Rani
A baby's body has about 300 bones at birth. These eventually fuse (grow together) to form the 206 bones that adults
Manali
Somebudy seys me 300
R.k
A baby's body has about 300 bones at birth. These eventually fuse (grow together) to form the 206 bones that adults h
Manali
I ask you about beby bones
R.k
i cann't say about 1 year baby's bones bt on birth baby has 300 bones
Manali
Ok thank you goodnight
R.k
good night
Manali
have a sweat dream
Rani
it's 300 bones because it a baby
Jasper
babies have 300 bones in which it fuses to become 206 as an adult.
Andrews
it has 300 bones ,nchimunya
Nchimunya
figure of male reproduction
Rani Reply
front view of male reproductive system
Rani
front view of male reproductive system
Rani
what is Actin? I don't understand this definition
Rhonda Reply
Actin is a family of globular multi-functional proteins that form microfilaments. 
Lauren
difference between throat and lyrnx
Lone
what is the difference between a vaccine and a antiserum
Silver Reply
An antiserum contains antibodies already produced and is used to pass on immune responses. A vaccine contains a substance that stimulates the production of antibodies to create an immune response.
Nana
A vaccine a preparation of antigens for one (or more) diseases that is given to stimulate active immunity and protect against the disease (s). while an antiserum either neutralizes the "infection " or stimulates your immune system to attack an infection.
Oliver
what is deoxyribonucleic acid
Carlene Reply
A negatively charged molecule; polymer of nucleotides found in the nucleus of a cell ... DNA.
Abayomi
guys u needs your help i am in this conversation but i don't understand what you guys were talking about please i need your help.
Asali
Hi
Janelle
hi
Oliver
hello
Rani
how are you doing?
Jasper
DNA is genetic material which is present in cell DNA is made up of nitrogen base,phosphate group and pentose sugar.
Manali
hi
Jasper
give a front view of male reproductive system
Rani
to maintain certain biological activities of cell
jeeni Reply

Get the best Human biology course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Human biology. OpenStax CNX. Dec 01, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11903/1.3
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Human biology' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask