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Burns

A burn results when the skin is damaged by intense heat, radiation, electricity, or chemicals. The damage results in the death of skin cells, which can lead to a massive loss of fluid. Dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, and renal and circulatory failure follow, which can be fatal. Burn patients are treated with intravenous fluids to offset dehydration, as well as intravenous nutrients that enable the body to repair tissues and replace lost proteins. Another serious threat to the lives of burn patients is infection. Burned skin is extremely susceptible to bacteria and other pathogens, due to the loss of protection by intact layers of skin.

Burns are sometimes measured in terms of the size of the total surface area affected. This is referred to as the “rule of nines,” which associates specific anatomical areas with a percentage that is a factor of nine ( [link] ). Burns are also classified by the degree of their severity. A first-degree burn    is a superficial burn that affects only the epidermis. Although the skin may be painful and swollen, these burns typically heal on their own within a few days. Mild sunburn fits into the category of a first-degree burn. A second-degree burn    goes deeper and affects both the epidermis and a portion of the dermis. These burns result in swelling and a painful blistering of the skin. It is important to keep the burn site clean and sterile to prevent infection. If this is done, the burn will heal within several weeks. A third-degree burn    fully extends into the epidermis and dermis, destroying the tissue and affecting the nerve endings and sensory function. These are serious burns that may appear white, red, or black; they require medical attention and will heal slowly without it. A fourth-degree burn    is even more severe, affecting the underlying muscle and bone. Oddly, third and fourth-degree burns are usually not as painful because the nerve endings themselves are damaged. Full-thickness burns cannot be repaired by the body, because the local tissues used for repair are damaged and require excision (debridement), or amputation in severe cases, followed by grafting of the skin from an unaffected part of the body, or from skin grown in tissue culture for grafting purposes.

Calculating the size of a burn

This diagram depicts the percentage of the total body area burned when a victim suffers complete burns to regions of the body. Complete burning of the face, head and neck account for 19% of the total body area. Burning of the chest, abdomen and entire back above the waist accounts for 36% of the total body area. Anterior and posterior surfaces of the arms and hands account for 18% of the total body area (9% for each arm). The anterior and posterior surface of both legs, along with the buttocks, accounts for 36% of the total body area (18% for each leg). Finally, the anterior and posterior surfaces of the genitalia account for 1% of the total body area.
The size of a burn will guide decisions made about the need for specialized treatment. Specific parts of the body are associated with a percentage of body area.

Skin grafts are required when the damage from trauma or infection cannot be closed with sutures or staples. Watch this video to learn more about skin grafting procedures.

Scars and keloids

Most cuts or wounds, with the exception of ones that only scratch the surface (the epidermis), lead to scar formation. A scar    is collagen-rich skin formed after the process of wound healing that differs from normal skin. Scarring occurs in cases in which there is repair of skin damage, but the skin fails to regenerate the original skin structure. Fibroblasts generate scar tissue in the form of collagen, and the bulk of repair is due to the basket-weave pattern generated by collagen fibers and does not result in regeneration of the typical cellular structure of skin. Instead, the tissue is fibrous in nature and does not allow for the regeneration of accessory structures, such as hair follicles, sweat glands, or sebaceous glands.

Questions & Answers

what is gross anatomy?
Vasco Reply
is the macroscopic form of anatomy where organs will be seen without the use of microscope
Kofi
yes
Aaliyah
yes
Memory
yes
godfrey
yes
Maddy
what is anatomy
Vasco Reply
is the structure of the part of the body
Kofi
when did we expect heat period
Kabiru Reply
when is pregnancy expected after ovulation
Kabiru
Minimum blood pressure
Hasnain Reply
120/80
AmirHameed
90/60
baila
120/80
Sri
were can anatomy work
capella Reply
in hospitality
Sri
what is normal flora
Cris Reply
it's one kind of bacteria
Tariq
the smallest blood vessel is capillary
Richard Reply
How does deoxygenated blood become oxygenated during blood circulation?
Richard
plzzz explain cardiac cycle
Piya Reply
what is anatomy
Gifty Reply
is the study of body structure
Amos
how types of tissue in body
mwiya
What are some of first questions are expected in anatomy and physiology course
Milner Reply
what is pacemaker
mekfira
its a device that is put into the heart to make sure it beats properly
Michelle
SA node produces impulse is called pacemaker
Piya
hi piya
Khubaib
hi Everyone
Hayat
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Hong
hey
Edrick
hello
Damien
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Damien
hlo
Lost
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Bok
hello
James
hi
IDDRISU
which of the following is the epithelial tissue that lines the interior of blood vessels?
Firomsa Reply
endothelial tissues
Osaki
Endothelial tissue
mabast
why are the questions only 3
Chisom Reply
you too can ask
Addo
what is the function of the skeletal system?
Cris
what is the treatment of herpes simplex virus?
riad Reply
the long bone with two primary center's of ossification for shaft is ________
Aarambam
medulla
Addo
good
Ravi
ha moj ha
Hani
doctor and nurse
Ravi
y 're the questions only 3
Chisom
women are much likely to be pregnant at which stage?
Fatoumatta Reply
There are only six days during any cycle when a woman can get pregnant - the five days leading up to ovulation and the 24 hours after ovulation. This is because sperm can live for up to 5 days in a woman's body, and the ovum lives for only 12-24 hours.
THE
right
Adil
does this apply to women close to menopose
Kuria
what's reason the reason for BP growing ?
Adil
when after they have intercourse
AJ
what is andropause
William Reply
It's the men version of menopause!
Catia
The testosterone levels decrease
Catia

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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