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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Identify the cardinal signs of inflammation
  • List the body’s response to tissue injury
  • Explain the process of tissue repair
  • Discuss the progressive impact of aging on tissue
  • Describe cancerous mutations’ effect on tissue

Tissues of all types are vulnerable to injury and, inevitably, aging. In the former case, understanding how tissues respond to damage can guide strategies to aid repair. In the latter case, understanding the impact of aging can help in the search for ways to diminish its effects.

Tissue injury and repair

Inflammation is the standard, initial response of the body to injury. Whether biological, chemical, physical, or radiation burns, all injuries lead to the same sequence of physiological events. Inflammation limits the extent of injury, partially or fully eliminates the cause of injury, and initiates repair and regeneration of damaged tissue. Necrosis , or accidental cell death, causes inflammation. Apoptosis is programmed cell death, a normal step-by-step process that destroys cells no longer needed by the body. By mechanisms still under investigation, apoptosis does not initiate the inflammatory response. Acute inflammation resolves over time by the healing of tissue. If inflammation persists, it becomes chronic and leads to diseased conditions. Arthritis and tuberculosis are examples of chronic inflammation. The suffix “-itis” denotes inflammation of a specific organ or type, for example, peritonitis is the inflammation of the peritoneum, and meningitis refers to the inflammation of the meninges, the tough membranes that surround the central nervous system

The four cardinal signs of inflammation—redness, swelling, pain, and local heat—were first recorded in antiquity. Cornelius Celsus is credited with documenting these signs during the days of the Roman Empire, as early as the first century AD. A fifth sign, loss of function, may also accompany inflammation.

Upon tissue injury, damaged cells release inflammatory chemical signals that evoke local vasodilation    , the widening of the blood vessels. Increased blood flow results in apparent redness and heat. In response to injury, mast cells present in tissue degranulate, releasing the potent vasodilator histamine    . Increased blood flow and inflammatory mediators recruit white blood cells to the site of inflammation. The endothelium lining the local blood vessel becomes “leaky” under the influence of histamine and other inflammatory mediators allowing neutrophils, macrophages, and fluid to move from the blood into the interstitial tissue spaces. The excess liquid in tissue causes swelling, more properly called edema. The swollen tissues squeezing pain receptors cause the sensation of pain. Prostaglandins released from injured cells also activate pain neurons. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) reduce pain because they inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins. High levels of NSAIDs reduce inflammation. Antihistamines decrease allergies by blocking histamine receptors and as a result the histamine response.

Questions & Answers

what's ths full meaning of the NADH enzyme
ovie Reply
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
Chidiebere
Thank you
ovie
no problem dear
Chidiebere
sorry,are you in Nigeria too?
Chidiebere
yes
ovie
What is down syndrome
jeniffer
is a genetic disorder caused by all or part of a third copy of chromosome
Felistus
it is also called trisomy 21
Chidiebere
it causes several malfunctioning of the body systems eg the heart, musculoskeletal system,etc due to absence of some important hormones and enzymes needed in the genetic makeup
Chidiebere
Cognitive impairment?
jeniffer
is an inclusive term to describe any characteristic that act as a barrier to cognition process
Benjamin
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is a coenzyme found in all living cells. The compound is a dinucleotide, because it consists of two nucleotides joined through their phosphate groups. Wikipedia
Maria
what are the different types of respiratory system
Tejal Reply
conducting zone and respiratory zone
Benjamin
the two type of respiratory system is upper airway and lower airway
Tejal
how can I do practice question
takesha Reply
through quetion answer format
mutesi
what type of gland is the liver?
deng
A solid gland? Is that what you meant? Or u could say it's a digestive gland but also filtrates blood, among other things. So it kinda fits many roles. Unless I'm wrong, but feel free to correct me if I am.
Ryan
what is the consequence of performing CPR on a functioning heart.
Pyefa Reply
The central part of the body
Alex Reply
i thought a cell is the fuctional unit of an orgarnism.
mutesi Reply
what is the name for inflammation of middle ear?
Madu
otitis media
Chidiebere
Describe an experiment to verify the law of constant composition
Ssekamatte Reply
amazing the exprement is hard to set up can you please help us describe it for us?
Momoh
Explain the major features and properties of the cell membrane
Robina Reply
contants ofa lipid bilayers w the enbedded proteins it is faction of the cell membaren
bariise
it is made up of protein,fat and a small portion of carbohydrates. it is semipermeable but impermeable to uncharged water molecules.
Chidiebere
thx
Robina
What are blood vessels of will's circle
Madu Reply
vertebral arteries and cerebral arteries
Chidiebere
What are sutures of cranial cavity ?
Madu Reply
there are four. the coronal, sagittal, squamous and lambhoidal sutured
Chidiebere
structure of a cell
Robina
pelvic cavity contents?
unimarwat Reply
ilium ,ischium ,pubis
Madu
but that is the three parts of the hip bone
Chidiebere
Describe the muscular skeletal system in terms of definition.. Skeleton Apendicular skeleton Axial skeleton Joints
Sherrine Reply
the basic framework of body made and cartilage is called skeleton skeleton which form limbs is called appendicular skeleton skeleton which form main axis of body is called axial skeleton the points at two or more bones meets is called joints
unimarwat
write short notes on ligaments,curves and moverment of vertebral column.
mutesi Reply
cranial nerves notes
unimarwat
what is the Analysis
ROHIT Reply
what is Anatomy
ROHIT Reply
it's a organs and bouns reading
AJITH
Cutting Up
Nonie
Cutting Up
Nonie
to dissect
Nonie

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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