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Psychology is the scientific study of mind and behavior. (credit "background": modification of work by Nattachai Noogure; credit "top left": modification of work by U.S. Navy; credit "top middle-left": modification of work by Peter Shanks; credit "top middle-right": modification of work by "devinf"/Flickr; credit "top right": modification of work by Alejandra Quintero Sinisterra; credit "bottom left": modification of work by Gabriel Rocha; credit "bottom middle-left": modification of work by Caleb Roenigk; credit "bottom middle-right": modification of work by Staffan Scherz; credit "bottom right": modification of work by Czech Provincial Reconstruction Team)

Clive Wearing is an accomplished musician who lost his ability to form new memories when he became sick at the age of 46. While he can remember how to play the piano perfectly, he cannot remember what he ate for breakfast just an hour ago (Sacks, 2007). James Wannerton experiences a taste sensation that is associated with the sound of words. His former girlfriend’s name tastes like rhubarb (Mundasad, 2013). John Nash is a brilliant mathematician and Nobel Prize winner. However, while he was a professor at MIT, he would tell people that the New York Times contained coded messages from extraterrestrial beings that were intended for him. He also began to hear voices and became suspicious of the people around him. Soon thereafter, Nash was diagnosed with schizophrenia and admitted to a state-run mental institution (O’Connor&Robertson, 2002). Nash was the subject of the 2001 movie A Beautiful Mind . Why did these people have these experiences? How does the human brain work? And what is the connection between the brain’s internal processes and people’s external behaviors? This textbook will introduce you to various ways that the field of psychology has explored these questions.

References

American Board of Forensic Psychology. (2014). Brochure . Retrieved from http://www.abfp.com/brochure.asp

American Psychological Association. (2014). Retrieved from www.apa.org

American Psychological Association. (2014). Graduate training and career possibilities in exercise and sport psychology. Retrieved from http://www.apadivisions.org/division-47/about/resources/training.aspx?item=1

American Psychological Association. (2011). Psychology as a career. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/education/undergrad/psych-career.aspx

Ashliman, D. L. (2001). Cupid and Psyche. In Folktexts: A library of folktales, folklore, fairy tales, and mythology. Retrieved from http://www.pitt.edu/~dash/cupid.html

Betancourt, H.,&López, S. R. (1993). The study of culture, ethnicity, and race in American psychology. American Psychologist , 48 , 629–637.

Black, S. R., Spence, S. A.,&Omari, S. R. (2004). Contributions of African Americans to the field of psychology. Journal of Black Studies , 35 , 40–64.

Bulfinch, T. (1855). The age of fable: Or, stories of gods and heroes . Boston, MA: Chase, Nichols and Hill.

Buss, D. M. (1989). Sex differences in human mate preferences: Evolutionary hypotheses tested in 37 cultures. Behavioral and Brain Sciences , 12 , 1–49.

Quiz PDF eBook: 
Week 2 Social Psych
Download Week  Quiz PDF eBook
22 Pages
2015
English US
Educational Materials



Sample Questions from the Week 2 Social Psych Quiz

Question: According to the lecture, which of the following is TRUE about attitude-behaviour relationships?

Choices:

When people have the ability to think carefully about how to behave and are motivated to think carefully, accessible attitudes should predict a behaviour.

Attitudes rarely predict behaviour and therefore generally regarded as a useless concept in social psychology.

Attitudes and behaviour influence each other some of the time, and form a positive-feedback loop.

Attitudes and behaviours separate and parallel processes, which do not influence each other

Question: Which of the following is TRUE about the cognitive dissonance theory?

Choices:

Cognitive dissonance is a negative state, which motivates us to reduce it.

My belief that smoking causes cancer an my knowledge of my behaviour that I smoke one packet of cigarettes a day are consonant with each other.

Cognitive dissonance is less likely to be felt in modern societies because modern music uses discords more.

All strategies to reduce cognitive dissonance are irrational.

Question: La Piere's famous study about attitudes and behaviour towards Chinese people (he observed people's behaviours in hotels, motor camps, and so on)

Choices:

Showed how people go about concocting reasons for their actions.

Was a landmark study because it measured behavioural intentions.

Was a poorly designed study because La Piere was not Chinese

Was a good example of attitude failing to predict a specific behaviour.

Question: Which of the following is TRUE about attitude-behaviour consistency?

Choices:

Attitudes tend to predict consistent behaviour when attitudes are accessible.

Attitude accessibility affects behaviour when people are using superficial processes.

Intention predicts behaviour when people are using systematic processes.

All of the above are true.

Question: Festinger and Carlsmith conducted an empirical test of cognitive dissonance theory. After establishing a negative attitude to a boring experiment, they induced their participants to perform a counter-attitudinal behaviour voluntarily. For this purpose, the participants were offered a large amount of reward ($20) or a small amount of reward ($1). Which of the following is TRUE about this experiment?

Choices:

Cognitive dissonance should not occur in either condition.

Cognitive dissonance should be greater in the $20 condition than in the $1 condition.

A greater attitude change was observed in the $1 condition than in the $20 condition.

An attitude change occurred when the participants performed the counter-attitudinal behaviour involuntarily.

Question: An attitude is accessible when it readily comes to mind. Which of the following conditions would produce accessible attitudes?

Choices:

Attitudes are formed on the basis of direct experience with the attitude object.

Attitudes are learned when a person is very young.

Attitudes are suppressed and kept unconscious.

None of the above

Question: When John says, "I dislike X because it makes me feel bad about myself", which of the following is TRUE?

Choices:

This is an example of social identity.

John's attitude towards X is serving as self-esteem maintenance function.

This is a structural feature of John's attitude.

John is clearly a utilitarian who is unconcerned about social norms.

Question: Which of the following is THE BEST EXAMPLE of what social psychologists call attitudes?

Choices:

My politics are Marxist

I don't like custard

I am angry

I think the world is flat.

Question: According to the theories of reasoned action and planned behaviour, which of the following is false?

Choices:

Both theories suggest that behaviour is influenced by people's intention to perform the behaviour.

Both theories suggest that intention is influenced by attitudes and subjective norm.

Both theories suggest that attitudes are determined by behavioural beliefs about the consequences of the behaviour (and their evaluations).

Theory of reasoned action includes perceived behavioural control as its important component whereas the theory of planned behaviour does not.

Question: In individual-level strategies for attitude change, a person whose attitudes you wish to influence is induced to behave in a way that is congruent with the attitudes you wish him or her to have. Which of the following is TRUE about these strategies?

Choices:

Attitudes are likely to change when the behaviour is forced, and is performed involuntarily.

Attitudes may change when the existing attitudes are already congruent with the behaviour and the behaviour is performed voluntarily.

Attitudes are unlikely to change if the induced behaviour is incongruent with the existing attitudes.

None of the above is TRUE.

Question: According to the theory of reasoned action, which of the following BEST predicts people's behaviour to go to a Rock concert in the city on this Saturday?

Choices:

Attitudes towards Rock music

Attitudes toward the Rock band playing at the concert on this Saturday

Attitudes toward going to the concert in the city on this Saturday

Attitudes toward going to the concert in the city on this Saturday by public transport

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