# 10.6 Parametric equations  (Page 5/6)

 Page 5 / 6

## Verbal

What is a system of parametric equations?

A pair of functions that is dependent on an external factor. The two functions are written in terms of the same parameter. For example, $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=f\left(t\right)\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=f\left(t\right).$

Some examples of a third parameter are time, length, speed, and scale. Explain when time is used as a parameter.

Explain how to eliminate a parameter given a set of parametric equations.

Choose one equation to solve for $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t,\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ substitute into the other equation and simplify.

What is a benefit of writing a system of parametric equations as a Cartesian equation?

What is a benefit of using parametric equations?

Some equations cannot be written as functions, like a circle. However, when written as two parametric equations, separately the equations are functions.

Why are there many sets of parametric equations to represent on Cartesian function?

## Algebraic

For the following exercises, eliminate the parameter $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ to rewrite the parametric equation as a Cartesian equation.

$\left\{\begin{array}{l}x\left(t\right)=5-t\hfill \\ y\left(t\right)=8-2t\hfill \end{array}$

$y=-2+2x$

$\left\{\begin{array}{l}x\left(t\right)=6-3t\hfill \\ y\left(t\right)=10-t\hfill \end{array}$

$\left\{\begin{array}{l}x\left(t\right)=2t+1\hfill \\ y\left(t\right)=3\sqrt{t}\hfill \end{array}$

$y=3\sqrt{\frac{x-1}{2}}$

$\left\{\begin{array}{l}x\left(t\right)=3t-1\hfill \\ y\left(t\right)=2{t}^{2}\hfill \end{array}$

$\left\{\begin{array}{l}x\left(t\right)=2{e}^{t}\hfill \\ y\left(t\right)=1-5t\hfill \end{array}$

$x=2{e}^{\frac{1-y}{5}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ or $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=1-5ln\left(\frac{x}{2}\right)$

$\left\{\begin{array}{l}x\left(t\right)={e}^{-2t}\hfill \\ y\left(t\right)=2{e}^{-t}\hfill \end{array}$

$\left\{\begin{array}{l}x\left(t\right)=4\text{log}\left(t\right)\hfill \\ y\left(t\right)=3+2t\hfill \end{array}$

$x=4\mathrm{log}\left(\frac{y-3}{2}\right)$

$\left\{\begin{array}{l}x\left(t\right)=\text{log}\left(2t\right)\hfill \\ y\left(t\right)=\sqrt{t-1}\hfill \end{array}$

$\left\{\begin{array}{l}x\left(t\right)={t}^{3}-t\hfill \\ y\left(t\right)=2t\hfill \end{array}$

$x={\left(\frac{y}{2}\right)}^{3}-\frac{y}{2}$

$\left\{\begin{array}{l}x\left(t\right)=t-{t}^{4}\hfill \\ y\left(t\right)=t+2\hfill \end{array}$

$\left\{\begin{array}{l}x\left(t\right)={e}^{2t}\hfill \\ y\left(t\right)={e}^{6t}\hfill \end{array}$

$y={x}^{3}$

$\left\{\begin{array}{l}x\left(t\right)={t}^{5}\hfill \\ y\left(t\right)={t}^{10}\hfill \end{array}$

${\left(\frac{x}{4}\right)}^{2}+{\left(\frac{y}{5}\right)}^{2}=1$

$\left\{\begin{array}{l}x\left(t\right)=3\mathrm{sin}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t\hfill \\ y\left(t\right)=6\mathrm{cos}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t\hfill \end{array}$

${y}^{2}=1-\frac{1}{2}x$

$\left\{\begin{array}{l}x\left(t\right)=\mathrm{cos}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t+4\\ y\left(t\right)=2{\mathrm{sin}}^{2}t\end{array}$

$\left\{\begin{array}{l}x\left(t\right)=t-1\\ y\left(t\right)={t}^{2}\end{array}$

$y={x}^{2}+2x+1$

$\left\{\begin{array}{l}x\left(t\right)=-t\\ y\left(t\right)={t}^{3}+1\end{array}$

$\left\{\begin{array}{l}x\left(t\right)=2t-1\\ y\left(t\right)={t}^{3}-2\end{array}$

$y={\left(\frac{x+1}{2}\right)}^{3}-2$

For the following exercises, rewrite the parametric equation as a Cartesian equation by building an $x\text{-}y$ table.

$\left\{\begin{array}{l}x\left(t\right)=2t-1\\ y\left(t\right)=t+4\end{array}$

$\left\{\begin{array}{l}x\left(t\right)=4-t\\ y\left(t\right)=3t+2\end{array}$

$y=-3x+14$

$\left\{\begin{array}{l}x\left(t\right)=2t-1\\ y\left(t\right)=5t\end{array}$

$\left\{\begin{array}{l}x\left(t\right)=4t-1\\ y\left(t\right)=4t+2\end{array}$

$y=x+3$

For the following exercises, parameterize (write parametric equations for) each Cartesian equation by setting $x\left(t\right)=t$ or by setting $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y\left(t\right)=t.$

$y\left(x\right)=3{x}^{2}+3$

$y\left(x\right)=2\mathrm{sin}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x+1$

$\left\{\begin{array}{l}x\left(t\right)=t\hfill \\ y\left(t\right)=2\mathrm{sin}t+1\hfill \end{array}$

$x\left(y\right)=3\mathrm{log}\left(y\right)+y$

$x\left(y\right)=\sqrt{y}+2y$

$\left\{\begin{array}{l}x\left(t\right)=\sqrt{t}+2t\hfill \\ y\left(t\right)=t\hfill \end{array}$

For the following exercises, parameterize (write parametric equations for) each Cartesian equation by using $x\left(t\right)=a\mathrm{cos}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t$ and $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y\left(t\right)=b\mathrm{sin}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ Identify the curve.

$\frac{{x}^{2}}{4}+\frac{{y}^{2}}{9}=1$

$\frac{{x}^{2}}{16}+\frac{{y}^{2}}{36}=1$

$\left\{\begin{array}{l}x\left(t\right)=4\mathrm{cos}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t\hfill \\ y\left(t\right)=6\mathrm{sin}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t\hfill \end{array};\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ Ellipse

${x}^{2}+{y}^{2}=16$

${x}^{2}+{y}^{2}=10$

$\left\{\begin{array}{l}x\left(t\right)=\sqrt{10}\mathrm{cos}t\hfill \\ y\left(t\right)=\sqrt{10}\mathrm{sin}t\hfill \end{array};\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ Circle

Parameterize the line from $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(3,0\right)\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ to $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(-2,-5\right)\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ so that the line is at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(3,0\right)\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t=0,\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(-2,-5\right)\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t=1.$

Parameterize the line from $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(-1,0\right)\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ to $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(3,-2\right)\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ so that the line is at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(-1,0\right)\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t=0,\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(3,-2\right)\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t=1.$

$\left\{\begin{array}{l}x\left(t\right)=-1+4t\hfill \\ y\left(t\right)=-2t\hfill \end{array}$

Parameterize the line from $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(-1,5\right)\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ to $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(2,3\right)$ so that the line is at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(-1,5\right)\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t=0,\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(2,3\right)\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t=1.$

Parameterize the line from $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(4,1\right)\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ to $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(6,-2\right)\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ so that the line is at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(4,1\right)\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t=0,\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(6,-2\right)\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ at $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t=1.$

$\left\{\begin{array}{l}x\left(t\right)=4+2t\hfill \\ y\left(t\right)=1-3t\hfill \end{array}$

## Technology

For the following exercises, use the table feature in the graphing calculator to determine whether the graphs intersect.

yes, at $t=2$

For the following exercises, use a graphing calculator to complete the table of values for each set of parametric equations.

$\left\{\begin{array}{l}{x}_{1}\left(t\right)=3{t}^{2}-3t+7\hfill \\ {y}_{1}\left(t\right)=2t+3\hfill \end{array}$

$t$ $x$ $y$
–1
0
1

$\left\{\begin{array}{l}{x}_{1}\left(t\right)={t}^{2}-4\hfill \\ {y}_{1}\left(t\right)=2{t}^{2}-1\hfill \end{array}$

$t$ $x$ $y$
1
2
3
$t$ $x$ $y$
1 -3 1
2 0 7
3 5 17

$\left\{\begin{array}{l}{x}_{1}\left(t\right)={t}^{4}\hfill \\ {y}_{1}\left(t\right)={t}^{3}+4\hfill \end{array}$

$t$ $x$ $y$
-1
0
1
2

## Extensions

Find two different sets of parametric equations for $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y={\left(x+1\right)}^{2}.$

answers may vary:

Find two different sets of parametric equations for $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=3x-2.$

Find two different sets of parametric equations for $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y={x}^{2}-4x+4.$

answers may vary: ,

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Source:  OpenStax, Algebra and trigonometry. OpenStax CNX. Nov 14, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11758/1.6
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