# 6.7 Exponential and logarithmic models  (Page 7/16)

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Does a linear, exponential, or logarithmic model best fit the data in [link] ? Find the model.

 $x$ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 $y$ 3.297 5.437 8.963 14.778 24.365 40.172 66.231 109.196 180.034

Exponential. $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=2{e}^{0.5x}.$

## Expressing an exponential model in base e

While powers and logarithms of any base can be used in modeling, the two most common bases are $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}10\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}e.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ In science and mathematics, the base $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}e\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ is often preferred. We can use laws of exponents and laws of logarithms to change any base to base $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}e.$

Given a model with the form $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=a{b}^{x},$ change it to the form $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y={A}_{0}{e}^{kx}.$

1. Rewrite $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=a{b}^{x}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ as $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=a{e}^{\mathrm{ln}\left({b}^{x}\right)}.$
2. Use the power rule of logarithms to rewrite y as $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=a{e}^{x\mathrm{ln}\left(b\right)}=a{e}^{\mathrm{ln}\left(b\right)x}.$
3. Note that $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}a={A}_{0}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}k=\mathrm{ln}\left(b\right)\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ in the equation $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y={A}_{0}{e}^{kx}.$

## Changing to base e

Change the function $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=2.5{\left(3.1\right)}^{x}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ so that this same function is written in the form $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y={A}_{0}{e}^{kx}.$

The formula is derived as follows

Change the function $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=3{\left(0.5\right)}^{x}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ to one having $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}e\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ as the base.

$y=3{e}^{\left(\mathrm{ln}0.5\right)x}$

Access these online resources for additional instruction and practice with exponential and logarithmic models.

## Key equations

 Half-life formula If $k<0,$ the half-life is Carbon-14 dating $t=\frac{\mathrm{ln}\left(\frac{A}{{A}_{0}}\right)}{-0.000121}.$ is the amount of carbon-14 when the plant or animal died is the amount of carbon-14 remaining today is the age of the fossil in years Doubling time formula If $k>0,$ the doubling time is Newton’s Law of Cooling $T\left(t\right)=A{e}^{kt}+{T}_{s},$ where is the ambient temperature, and is the continuous rate of cooling.

## Key concepts

• The basic exponential function is $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)=a{b}^{x}.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ If $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}b>1,$ we have exponential growth; if $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}0 we have exponential decay.
• We can also write this formula in terms of continuous growth as $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}A={A}_{0}{e}^{kx},$ where $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{A}_{0}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ is the starting value. If $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{A}_{0}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ is positive, then we have exponential growth when $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}k>0\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and exponential decay when $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}k<0.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ See [link] .
• In general, we solve problems involving exponential growth or decay in two steps. First, we set up a model and use the model to find the parameters. Then we use the formula with these parameters to predict growth and decay. See [link] .
• We can find the age, $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t,$ of an organic artifact by measuring the amount, $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}k,$ of carbon-14 remaining in the artifact and using the formula $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t=\frac{\mathrm{ln}\left(k\right)}{-0.000121}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ to solve for $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ See [link] .
• Given a substance’s doubling time or half-time, we can find a function that represents its exponential growth or decay. See [link] .
• We can use Newton’s Law of Cooling to find how long it will take for a cooling object to reach a desired temperature, or to find what temperature an object will be after a given time. See [link] .
• We can use logistic growth functions to model real-world situations where the rate of growth changes over time, such as population growth, spread of disease, and spread of rumors. See [link] .
• We can use real-world data gathered over time to observe trends. Knowledge of linear, exponential, logarithmic, and logistic graphs help us to develop models that best fit our data. See [link] .
• Any exponential function with the form $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=a{b}^{x}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ can be rewritten as an equivalent exponential function with the form $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y={A}_{0}{e}^{kx}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ where $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}k=\mathrm{ln}b.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ See [link] .

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