# 1.2 Data, sampling, and variation in data and sampling -- rrc math  (Page 10/56)

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## Size of a sample

The size of a sample (often called the number of observations) is important. The examples you have seen in this book so far have been small. Samples of only a few hundred observations, or even smaller, are sufficient for many purposes. In polling, samples that are from 1,200 to 1,500 observations are considered large enough and good enough if the survey is random and is well done. You will learn why when you study confidence intervals.

Be aware that many large samples are biased. For example, call-in surveys are invariably biased, because people choose to respond or not.

## Collaborative exercise

Divide into groups of two, three, or four. Your instructor will give each group one six-sided die. Try this experiment twice. Roll one fair die (six-sided) 20 times. Record the number of ones, twos, threes, fours, fives, and sixes you get in [link] and [link] (“frequency” is the number of times a particular face of the die occurs):

First experiment (20 rolls)
Face on Die Frequency
1
2
3
4
5
6
Second experiment (20 rolls)
Face on Die Frequency
1
2
3
4
5
6

Did the two experiments have the same results? Probably not. If you did the experiment a third time, do you expect the results to be identical to the first or second experiment? Why or why not?

Which experiment had the correct results? They both did. The job of the statistician is to see through the variability and draw appropriate conclusions.

## Critical evaluation

We need to evaluate the statistical studies we read about critically and analyze them before accepting the results of the studies. Common problems to be aware of include

• Problems with samples: A sample must be representative of the population. A sample that is not representative of the population is biased. Biased samples that are not representative of the population give results that are inaccurate and not valid.
• Self-selected samples: Responses only by people who choose to respond, such as call-in surveys, are often unreliable.
• Sample size issues: Samples that are too small may be unreliable. Larger samples are better, if possible. In some situations, having small samples is unavoidable and can still be used to draw conclusions. Examples: crash testing cars or medical testing for rare conditions
• Undue influence:  collecting data or asking questions in a way that influences the response
• Non-response or refusal of subject to participate:  The collected responses may no longer be representative of the population.  Often, people with strong positive or negative opinions may answer surveys, which can affect the results.
• Causality: A relationship between two variables does not mean that one causes the other to occur. They may be related (correlated) because of their relationship through a different variable.
• Self-funded or self-interest studies: A study performed by a person or organization in order to support their claim. Is the study impartial? Read the study carefully to evaluate the work. Do not automatically assume that the study is good, but do not automatically assume the study is bad either. Evaluate it on its merits and the work done.
• Misleading use of data: improperly displayed graphs, incomplete data, or lack of context
• Confounding:  When the effects of multiple factors on a response cannot be separated.  Confounding makes it difficult or impossible to draw valid conclusions about the effect of each factor.