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References

Data from the United States Census Bureau. Available online at http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-02.pdf

Hinduja, Sameer. “Sexting Research and Gender Differences.” Cyberbulling Research Center, 2013. Available online at http://cyberbullying.us/blog/sexting-research-and-gender-differences/ (accessed June 17, 2013).

“Smart Phone Users, By the Numbers.” Visually, 2013. Available online at http://visual.ly/smart-phone-users-numbers (accessed June 17, 2013).

Smith, Aaron. “35% of American adults own a Smartphone.” Pew Internet, 2013. Available online at http://www.pewinternet.org/~/media/Files/Reports/2011/PIP_Smartphones.pdf (accessed June 17, 2013).

“State-Specific Prevalence of Obesity AmongAduls—Unites States, 2007.” MMWR, CDC. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5728a1.htm (accessed June 17, 2013).

“Texas Crime Rates 1960–1012.” FBI, Uniform Crime Reports, 2013. Available online at: http://www.disastercenter.com/crime/txcrime.htm (accessed June 17, 2013).

Chapter review

A hypothesis test of two population means from independent samples where the population standard deviations are known (typically approximated with the sample standard deviations), will have these characteristics:

  • Random variable: X ¯ 1 X ¯ 2 = the difference of the means
  • Distribution: normal distribution

Formula review

Normal Distribution:
X ¯ 1 X ¯ 2 N [ μ 1 μ 2 , ( σ 1 ) 2 n 1 + ( σ 2 ) 2 n 2 ] .
Generally µ 1 µ 2 = 0.

Test Statistic ( z -score):
z = ( x ¯ 1 x ¯ 2 ) ( μ 1 μ 2 ) ( σ 1 ) 2 n 1 + ( σ 2 ) 2 n 2
Generally µ 1 - µ 2 = 0.

where:
σ 1 and σ 2 are the known population standard deviations. n 1 and n 2 are the sample sizes. x ¯ 1 and x ¯ 2 are the sample means. μ 1 and μ 2 are the population means.

Use the following information to answer the next five exercises. The mean speeds of fastball pitches from two different baseball pitchers are to be compared. A sample of 14 fastball pitches is measured from each pitcher. The populations have normal distributions. [link] shows the result. Scouters believe that Rodriguez pitches a speedier fastball.

Pitcher Sample Mean Speed of Pitches (mph) Population Standard Deviation
Wesley 86 3
Rodriguez 91 7

What is the random variable?

The difference in mean speeds of the fastball pitches of the two pitchers

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State the null and alternative hypotheses.

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What is the test statistic?

–2.46

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At the 1% significance level, what is your conclusion?

At the 1% significance level, we can reject the null hypothesis. There is sufficient data to conclude that the mean speed of Rodriguez’s fastball is faster than Wesley’s.

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Use the following information to answer the next five exercises. A researcher is testing the effects of plant food on plant growth. Nine plants have been given the plant food. Another nine plants have not been given the plant food. The heights of the plants are recorded after eight weeks. The populations have normal distributions. The following table is the result. The researcher thinks the food makes the plants grow taller.

Plant Group Sample Mean Height of Plants (inches) Population Standard Deviation
Food 16 2.5
No food 14 1.5

Is the population standard deviation known or unknown?

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State the null and alternative hypotheses.

Subscripts: 1 = Food, 2 = No Food
H 0 : μ 1 μ 2
H a : μ 1 > μ 2

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Draw the graph of the p -value.

This is a normal distribution curve with mean equal to zero. The values 0 and 0.1 are labeled on the horiztonal axis. A vertical line extends from 0.1 to the curve. The region under the curve to the right of the line is shaded to represent p-value = 0.0198.
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At the 1% significance level, what is your conclusion?

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Use the following information to answer the next five exercises. Two metal alloys are being considered as material for ball bearings. The mean melting point of the two alloys is to be compared. 15 pieces of each metal are being tested. Both populations have normal distributions. The following table is the result. It is believed that Alloy Zeta has a different melting point.

Sample Mean Melting Temperatures (°F) Population Standard Deviation
Alloy Gamma 800 95
Alloy Zeta 900 105

State the null and alternative hypotheses.

Subscripts: 1 = Gamma, 2 = Zeta
H 0 : μ 1 = μ 2
H a : μ 1 μ 2

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Is this a right-, left-, or two-tailed test?

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What is the p -value?

0.0062

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Draw the graph of the p -value.

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At the 1% significance level, what is your conclusion?

There is sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis. The data support that the melting point for Alloy Zeta is different from the melting point of Alloy Gamma.

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Questions & Answers

what is statistics
Emmanuel Reply
statistics is the collection and interpretation of data
Enhance
the science of summarization and description of numerical facts
Enhance
Is the estimation of probability
Zaini
mr. zaini..can u tell me more clearly how to calculated pair t test
Haai
do you have MG Akarwal Statistics' book Zaini?
Enhance
Haai how r u?
Enhance
maybe .... mathematics is the science of simplification and statistics is the interpretation of such values and its implications.
Miguel
can we discuss about pair test
Haai
what is outlier?
Usama Reply
outlier is an observation point that is distant from other observations.
Gidigah
what is its effect on mode?
Usama
Outlier  have little effect on the mode of a given set of data.
Gidigah
How can you identify a possible outlier(s) in a data set.
Daniel
The best visualisation method to identify the outlier is box and wisker method or boxplot diagram. The points which are located outside the max edge of wisker(both side) are considered as outlier.
Akash
@Daniel Adunkwah - Usually you can identify an outlier visually. They lie outside the observed pattern of the other data points, thus they're called outliers.
Ron
what is completeness?
Muhammad
I am new to this. I am trying to learn.
Dom
I am also new Dom, welcome!
Nthabi
thanks
Dom
I don't get the example
Hadekunle Reply
ways of collecting data at least 10 and explain
Ridwan Reply
Example of discrete variable
Bada Reply
sales made monthly.
Gbenga
I am new here, can I get someone to guide up?
alayo
dies outcome is 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 nothing come outside of it. it is an example of discrete variable
jainesh
continue variable is any value value between 0 to 1 it could be 4digit values eg 0.1, 0.21, 0.13, 0.623, 0.32
jainesh
How to answer quantitative data
Alhassan Reply
hi
Kachalla
what's up here ... am new here
Kachalla
sorry question a bit unclear...do you mean how do you analyze quantitative data? If yes, it depends on the specific question(s) you set in the beginning as well as on the data you collected. So the method of data analysis will be dependent on the data collecter and questions asked.
Bheka
how to solve for degree of freedom
saliou
Quantitative data is the data in numeric form. For eg: Income of persons asked is 10,000. This data is quantitative data on the other hand data collected for either make or female is qualitative data.
Rohan
*male
Rohan
Degree of freedom is the unconditionality. For example if you have total number of observations n, and you have to calculate variance, obviously you will need mean for that. Here mean is a condition, without which you cannot calculate variance. Therefore degree of freedom for variance will be n-1.
Rohan
data that is best presented in categories like haircolor, food taste (good, bad, fair, terrible) constitutes qualitative data
Bheka
vegetation types (grasslands, forests etc) qualitative data
Bheka
I don't understand how you solved it can you teach me
Caleb Reply
solve what?
Ambo
mean
Vanarith
What is the end points of a confidence interval called?
ZIMKHITHA Reply
lower and upper endpoints
Bheka
Class members write down the average time (in hours, to the nearest half-hour) they sleep per night.
William Reply
how we make a classes of this(170.3,173.9,171.3,182.3,177.3,178.3,174.175.3)
Sarbaz
6.5
phoenix
11
Shakir
7.5
Ron
why is always lower class bundry used
Caleb
Assume you are in a class where quizzes are 20% of your grade, homework is 20%, exam _1 is 15%,exam _2 is 15%, and the final exam is 20%.Suppose you are in the fifth week and you just found out that you scored a 58/63 on the fist exam. You also know that you received 6/9,8/10,9/9 on the first
Diamatu Reply
quizzes as well as a 9/11,10/10,and 4.5/7 on the first three homework assignment. what is your current grade in the course?
Diamatu
the answer is 2.6
Abdul
if putting y=3x examine that correlation coefficient between x and y=3x is 1.
Aadrsh Reply
what is permutation
Rodlett Reply
how to construct a histogram
Baalisi Reply
You have to plot the class midpoint and the frequency
Wydny
ok so you use those two to draw the histogram right.
Amford
yes
Wydny
ok can i be a friend so you can be teaching me small small
Amford
how do you calculate cost effectiveness?
George
Hi everyone, this is a very good statistical group and am glad to be part of it. I'm just not sure how did I end up here cos this discussion just popes on my screen so if I wanna ask something in the future, how will I find you?
Bheka
To make a histogram, follow these steps: On the vertical axis, place frequencies. Label this axis "Frequency". On the horizontal axis, place the lower value of each interval. ... Draw a bar extending from the lower value of each interval to the lower value of the next interval.
Divya
I really appreciate that
umar Reply
I want to test linear regression data such as maintenance fees vs house size. Can I use R square, F test to test the relationship? Is the good condition of R square greater than 0.5
Mok Reply
yes of course must have use f test and also use t test individually multple coefficients
rishi
Alright
umar
hi frnd I'm akeem by name, I wanna study economics and statistics wat ar d thing I must do to b a great economist
akeem
Is R square cannot analysis linear regression of X vs Y relationship?
Mok
To be an economist you have to be professional in maths
umar
hi frnds
Shehu

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Source:  OpenStax, Introductory statistics. OpenStax CNX. May 06, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11562/1.18
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