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Try it

Refer back to the pizza-delivery Try It exercise. The population standard deviation is six minutes and the sample mean deliver time is 36 minutes. Use a sample size of 20. Find a 95% confidence interval estimate for the true mean pizza delivery time.

(33.37, 38.63)

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Suppose we change the original problem in [link] to see what happens to the error bound if the sample size is changed.

Leave everything the same except the sample size. Use the original 90% confidence level. What happens to the error bound and the confidence interval if we increase the sample size and use n = 100 instead of n = 36? What happens if we decrease the sample size to n = 25 instead of n = 36?

  • x ¯ = 68
  • EBM = ( z α 2 ) ( σ n )
  • σ = 3; The confidence level is 90% ( CL =0.90); z α 2 = z 0.05 = 1.645.

Solution b

If we decrease the sample size n to 25, we increase the error bound.

When n = 25: EBM = ( z α 2 ) ( σ n ) = (1.645) ( 3 25 ) = 0.987.

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    Summary: effect of changing the sample size

  • Increasing the sample size causes the error bound to decrease, making the confidence interval narrower.
  • Decreasing the sample size causes the error bound to increase, making the confidence interval wider.
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Try it

Refer back to the pizza-delivery Try It exercise. The mean delivery time is 36 minutes and the population standard deviation is six minutes. Assume the sample size is changed to 50 restaurants with the same sample mean. Find a 90% confidence interval estimate for the population mean delivery time.

(34.6041, 37.3958)

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Working backwards to find the error bound or sample mean

When we calculate a confidence interval, we find the sample mean, calculate the error bound, and use them to calculate the confidence interval. However, sometimes when we read statistical studies, the study may state the confidence interval only. If we know the confidence interval, we can work backwards to find both the error bound and the sample mean.

    Finding the Error Bound

  • From the upper value for the interval, subtract the sample mean,
  • OR, from the upper value for the interval, subtract the lower value. Then divide the difference by two.

    Finding the Sample Mean

  • Subtract the error bound from the upper value of the confidence interval,
  • OR, average the upper and lower endpoints of the confidence interval.

Notice that there are two methods to perform each calculation. You can choose the method that is easier to use with the information you know.

Suppose we know that a confidence interval is (67.18, 68.82) and we want to find the error bound. We may know that the sample mean is 68, or perhaps our source only gave the confidence interval and did not tell us the value of the sample mean.

    Calculate the error bound:

  • If we know that the sample mean is 68: EBM = 68.82 – 68 = 0.82.
  • If we don't know the sample mean: EBM = ( 68.82 67.18 ) 2 = 0.82.

    Calculate the sample mean:

  • If we know the error bound: x ¯ = 68.82 – 0.82 = 68
  • If we don't know the error bound: x ¯ = ( 67.18 + 68.82 ) 2 = 68.
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Try it

Suppose we know that a confidence interval is (42.12, 47.88). Find the error bound and the sample mean.

Sample mean is 45, error bound is 2.88

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Calculating the sample size n

If researchers desire a specific margin of error, then they can use the error bound formula to calculate the required sample size.

Questions & Answers

what is statistics
Bhavani Reply
statistics is the beach of mathematics which deals with collection ,organisation, presentation, analysis and interpretation of numerical data
Saeed
oh but interpretation of data, like what and how? 🤔
Bhavani
interpretation: Think in a way that you have given a company year turnover and you have a record of 100years and data set is like (Year,Turnover). Now with that data you can interpret many thing how was the company growth, when were the losses and other things
Akash
interpretation: it is a process in which we make a decision about a population on the basis of sample data . example: if we want to interpret the average income of employees for upcoming year so we have to interpret the income of employees on the basis of previous year's income of those employees
Saeed
thank you saeed, Akash. I understood.
Bhavani
Finding correlation and regression
Langat Reply
explain statistics whether it is a science or arts or both
ratnapriya Reply
I would say art is a creation. A chef is an artist. They create new dishes just like the painters. I believe one who creates something new, is an artist. So, Statistics is also an art, if you know it, you can create some new formula, theory, law, etcetera. It is also Science. So yes, it is both.
Rohan
how do you use the normal distribution table when testing the hypothesis
Davia
I am sorry Davia, I cannot help you with that.
Rohan
percentages of all the possible outcomes are measured. This is so simple and bases on the questionnaire or interview schedule. It's just measuring the probability chances of high %age of the either part of the hypothesis ... dependent ..independent. data is classified on the basis of respondents
saifuddin
what percent of the students would be expected to score above 95?
Peachy Reply
inferential statistics is what?
Seyi Reply
in which we make infrences (hypothsis)
asad
surpose a data set of 2,3,5,6,1,4 are given find median
lucy Reply
fastest finger please
lucy
Mean (average) 4... Median (middle term) 3.5.. Mode (frequency) every element in a set has 1 frequrncy
Akash
i arrange the data set in ascending order. that is, 1,2,3,4,5,6. then find the data set that falls in the middle. in this case, 3 & 4 fall in the middle. you then sum and obtain the average. that is, (3+4)/2=3.5. therefore, 3.5 is the median.
Gbenga
both of you are correct.
Joseph
hello guys
Abasikponke
thanks
lucy
great to be here
King
how does a line graph look
King
hi
Davia
hello
lucy
pls who knows how line graph look like
King
line graph usually have a straight line running through axis
Dike
am new here anyone willing to orient me?
Timothy
find the media of the following numbers 61,64,67,70,73
lucy Reply
my body pls
lucy
67
Benmike
what happen to your body@hana
Benmike
what is the percentile for the set of data in the class C and frequency F(c,f)given by (9.3-9.7,2) (9.8-10.2,5) (10.3-10.7,12) (10.8-11.2,17) (11.3-11.7,14) (11.8-12.2,6) (12.3-12.7,3) (12.8-13.2,1)
Chinwendu Reply
how to find median
Hrishe Reply
arrange ascending and desending order than the mid value is Median
rajendra
ok
Hrishe
what if it is a group data
Oloyede
mean/ medium/ mode
Michelle
n\2 and n+1\2
asad
An operational manager at a manufacturing company is interested in the level of satisfaction of computer buyers. The manager has developed a satisfaction scale of 1-10 to mark their level of understanding with the company.What is the population of the interest?
thomas Reply
Any clues
Virtual
how to use grouped and ungrouped data
Hassan Reply
Just a test from gplay
Lucy Reply
how come 5.67
Mano Reply
by dividing 11.37 on 2
saifuddin
by dividing 11.34 on 2
saifuddin
what is index number?
vinayak
What is the differences between quota an lottery system of sampling
EGBE
What are the are the characteristics that are critically expedients in selecting the sample size
EGBE
fit a binomial distribution for the following data and test the goodness of fit x: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 f: 5 18 28 12 7 6 4
Mikki Reply
solution
Mano
solve the question please
Mano
can some please help solve so that we learn some
Simonsakala
It is a square chi
Nelson
But can't be a binomial because, the x numbers are 0 to 6, instead those would be "0" or "1" in a straight way
Nelson
You can do a chi-square test, but the assumption has to be a normal distribution, and the last f's number need to be "64"
Nelson
sorry the last f's numbers : "6 and 4" which are the observed values for 5 and 6 (expected values)
Nelson
hi
rajendra
can't understand basic of statistics ..
rajendra
Sorry I see my mistake, we have to calculate the expected values
Nelson
So we need this equation: P= (X=x)=(n to x) p^x(1-p)^n-x
Nelson
why it is not possible brother
ibrar
were n= 2 ( binomial) x= number of makes (0 to 6) and p= probability, could be 0.8.
Nelson
so after we calculate the expected values for each observed value (f) we do the chi-square. x^2=summatory(observed-expected)^2 / expected and compare with x^2 in table with 0.8
Nelson
tomorrow I'll post the answer, I'm so tired today, sorry for my mistake in the first messages.
Nelson
It is possible, sorry for my mistake
Nelson
two trader shared investment and buoght Cattle.Mr.Omer bought 255 cows & rented the farm for a period of 32 days. Mr. Ahmed grazed his Cattle for 25 days. Mr. Ahmed's cattle was 180 cows.Together they profited $ 7800. the rent of the farm is $ 3000 so divide the profit per gows/day for grazing day
Mohamed
how to start this book, who is reading thins first time
Nissar Reply
It is my first time reading this book
Qader
Good one
ihsan

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Source:  OpenStax, Introductory statistics. OpenStax CNX. May 06, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11562/1.18
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