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The following table is a portion of a data set from www.worldbank.org. Use the table to construct a time series graph for CO 2 emissions for the United States.

CO2 Emissions
Ukraine United Kingdom United States
2003 352,259 540,640 5,681,664
2004 343,121 540,409 5,790,761
2005 339,029 541,990 5,826,394
2006 327,797 542,045 5,737,615
2007 328,357 528,631 5,828,697
2008 323,657 522,247 5,656,839
2009 272,176 474,579 5,299,563
This is a times series graph that matches the supplied data. The x-axis shows years from 2003 to 2012, and the y-axis shows the annual CPI.
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Uses of a time series graph

Time series graphs are important tools in various applications of statistics. When recording values of the same variable over an extended period of time, sometimes it is difficult to discern any trend or pattern. However, once the same data points are displayed graphically, some features jump out. Time series graphs make trends easy to spot.

References

Data on annual homicides in Detroit, 1961–73, from Gunst&Mason’s book ‘Regression Analysis and its Application’, Marcel Dekker

“Timeline: Guide to the U.S. Presidents: Information on every president’s birthplace, political party, term of office, and more.” Scholastic, 2013. Available online at http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/article/timeline-guide-us-presidents (accessed April 3, 2013).

“Presidents.” Fact Monster. Pearson Education, 2007. Available online at http://www.factmonster.com/ipka/A0194030.html (accessed April 3, 2013).

“Food Security Statistics.” Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Available online at http://www.fao.org/economic/ess/ess-fs/en/ (accessed April 3, 2013).

“Consumer Price Index.” United States Department of Labor: Bureau of Labor Statistics. Available online at http://data.bls.gov/pdq/SurveyOutputServlet (accessed April 3, 2013).

“CO2 emissions (kt).” The World Bank, 2013. Available online at http://databank.worldbank.org/data/home.aspx (accessed April 3, 2013).

“Births Time Series Data.” General Register Office For Scotland, 2013. Available online at http://www.gro-scotland.gov.uk/statistics/theme/vital-events/births/time-series.html (accessed April 3, 2013).

“Demographics: Children under the age of 5 years underweight.” Indexmundi. Available online at http://www.indexmundi.com/g/r.aspx?t=50&v=2224&aml=en (accessed April 3, 2013).

Gunst, Richard, Robert Mason. Regression Analysis and Its Application: A Data-Oriented Approach . CRC Press: 1980.

“Overweight and Obesity: Adult Obesity Facts.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/adult.html (accessed September 13, 2013).

Chapter review

A histogram is a graphic version of a frequency distribution. The graph consists of bars of equal width drawn adjacent to each other. The horizontal scale represents classes of quantitative data values and the vertical scale represents frequencies. The heights of the bars correspond to frequency values. Histograms are typically used for large, continuous, quantitative data sets. A frequency polygon can also be used when graphing large data sets with data points that repeat. The data usually goes on y -axis with the frequency being graphed on the x -axis. Time series graphs can be helpful when looking at large amounts of data for one variable over a period of time.

Questions & Answers

how to construct a histogram
Baalisi Reply
I really appreciate that
umar Reply
I want to test linear regression data such as maintenance fees vs house size. Can I use R square, F test to test the relationship? Is the good condition of R square greater than 0.5
Mok Reply
yes of course must have use f test and also use t test individually multple coefficients
rishi
Alright
umar
hi frnd I'm akeem by name, I wanna study economics and statistics wat ar d thing I must do to b a great economist
akeem
Is R square cannot analysis linear regression of X vs Y relationship?
Mok
To be an economist you have to be professional in maths
umar
hi frnds
Shehu
what is random sampling what is sample error
Nistha Reply
@Nistha Kashyap Random sampling is the selection of random items (or random numbers) from the group. A sample error occurs when the selected samples do not truely represent the whole group. The can happen when most or all of the selected samples are taken from only one section of the group;
Ron
Thus the sample is not truely random.
Ron
What is zero sum game?
Hassan Reply
A game in which there is no profit & no loss to any of the both player.
Milan
Differences between sample mean & population mean
mohammed Reply
***keydifferences.com/difference-between-sample-mean-and-population-mean.html
Lucien
Not difference in the formula except the notation, sample mean is denoted by x bar and population mean is denoted by mu symbol. There is formula as well as notation between difference variance and standard deviations
Akash
Likely the difference would be in the result, unless the sample is an exact representation of the population (which is unlikely.)
Ron
what is data
Nii
Nii Avin - Data is just a simple way to refer to the numbers in the population, or in the sample used in your calculations.
Ron
what are the types of data
Nii
Data is the very pale android from the Star Trek Enterprise
Andrew
Am Emmanuel from Nigeria
Emmanuel
Am Qudus from Nigeria
Rasak
am Handson from Cameroon
Handson
what is a mode?
Handson
Nii - data is whatever you are sampling. Such as the number of students in each classroom.
Ron
Handson Ndintek - the mode is the number appearing most frequently. Example: 7 9 11 7 4 6 3 7 2. 7 is the mode. In a group such as 7 9 1 4 6 3, there is no mode because no number appears more often than any other.
Ron
hi I want to know how to find class boundary
Baalisi
give me the two types of data
Neddy Reply
qualitative and quantitative
phoenix
primary and secondary data
Peace
qualitative and quantitative
Prince
Using Cauchy Schwartz inequality,or prove that b2-b1-1=0
Md Reply
what is the ongoing probability that President Trump will remain in the position he has chosen as his viability of his cabinet as he runs for reelection in the primaries of 2020 election year
Terry
what is statistic?
Jhasaketan Reply
it's a science of collection, organization, analysis and summarizing data to get useful information to make several types of conclusions.which can be used in real life.
anshika
what is the statistical probability that president Trump will remain in the white house after the election of 2020?
Terry
i agree with anshika is right but let me add that such decisions are made in face of uncertainty
Maureen
yes
Stephen
classification of statistic
Jhasaketan Reply
statistic can classified into many types eassy to understand future values effect
Narendra
what is mean?
Jhasaketan
average value
Narendra
İ want to understand what is t test or neyma. Pearson test ans difference
Yasin
to test the hypotesis ho follws h1 l1/lo
Narendra
Hope this helps. There are three main types of averages. *mean -> average -> (X1+X2+X3+...+Xn) / n *mode -> the element within a set which occurs most. {3,4,5,8,12,3,4,3,3,56} mode = 3 *median -  {3,3,4,5,8,12,56} median = 5 OR {3,4,5,8,12,56} median = 6.5
Jack
conceptual approach to limits
lameck Reply
how are limits derived?
lameck
an entire section of calculus is devoted to that explanation.
Pitior
what is statistics?
Martin Reply
statistics :- can be defined as the branches of mathematics that deals with the summarizing, analysing,organization and interpretation of data.
Usman
well said
Venkat
can we find Z value on calculator with out using Z table
Maham Reply
no
Pitior
why
Maham
can another way is possible ?
Maham
Well you could make a table. And as the function you use the one used at the z table
Luca
The normal function is only one way, so you can only try using different numbers until you get the probability that you have. So that is easier if you have a table
Luca
me don't know nothing about z table and don't know how to see the z value on table can you tell me please how see the value on table
Maham
The z table is the table of the standard normal distribution
Luca
You can look it up on internet, its easier than writing down the normal distribution function (with an integral) and doing a table in the calculator
Luca
OK thanks luca
Maham
yes use pnorm in r
Venkat
pnorm(2.3,mean=0,sd=1)
Venkat
pnorm?
Maham
do u have r software
Venkat
no
Maham
its with tht u will get
Venkat
or type in google
Venkat
z mathportal calculator
Venkat
calculator
Venkat
OK venkat thanks
Maham
welcome
Venkat
have calculator but don't know how find z value
Maham
ti83
Venkat
hey guys I'm from computer background so what are the concepts I supposed to prepare for interview in statistics
Alwin
descriptive stats
Venkat
inferential stats
Venkat
outlier treatment
Venkat
boxplot
Venkat
ok
Alwin
assumption of linear regression
Venkat
logistic regression
Venkat
k means clustering
Venkat
exact syllabus?
Alwin
type. analytics vidya interview questions statistics
Venkat
listen. data also
Venkat
like this forum
Jameel
My question is "is it only stats?"
Jameel
wer is the problem
Venkat
how find straight line equation in regression
Maham Reply
u can find using excel
Venkat
or r studio
Venkat
for regression
Venkat
shall i help
Venkat
im an expert
Venkat
by giving a value to x,y
Ibrokhim
first provide data
Venkat
ill solve and guve
Venkat
ive
Venkat
yeah please
Maham
maham you posted data
Venkat
please post data
Venkat
ok
Maham
x:1,2,3,4,5 y:2,5,6,8,9
Maham
regredsion equation is
Venkat
y=0.9+1.7x
Venkat
reg eq is y=0.9+1.7x
Venkat
slope = 1.7
Venkat
yintercept = 0.9
Venkat
answered
Venkat
thanx venkat naveen😊
Maham
welcome
Venkat
the tenth percentile for land selling at jabi is 35,000 and the nineteenth percentile for the land price in the same area is 225,what is the 10_90 percentile range
sodiq Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Introductory statistics. OpenStax CNX. May 06, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11562/1.18
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