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Techniques based on the nature of the application

The above techniques apply to all types of software. However, for some kinds of applications, some additional know-how is required for test derivation. A list of a few specialized testing fields is provided here, based on the nature of the application under test:

  • Object-oriented testing
  • Component-based testing
  • Web-based testing
  • GUI testing
  • Testing of concurrent programs
  • Protocol conformance testing
  • Testing of real-time systems
  • Testing of safety-critical systems (IEEE1228-94)

Selecting and combining techniques

Functional and structural

Specification-based and code-based test techniques are often contrasted as functional vs. structural testing. These two approaches to test selection are not to be seen as alternative but rather as complementary; in fact, they use different sources of information and have proved to highlight different kinds of problems. They could be used in combination, depending on budgetary considerations.

Deterministic vs. random

Test cases can be selected in a deterministic way, according to one of the various techniques listed, or randomly drawn from some distribution of inputs, such as is usually done in reliability testing. Several analytical and empirical comparisons have been conducted to analyze the conditions that make one approach more effective than the other.

Sometimes, test techniques are confused with test objectives. Test techniques are to be viewed as aids which help to ensure the achievement of test objectives. For instance, branch coverage is a popular test technique. Achieving a specified branch coverage measure should not be considered the objective of testing per se: it is a means to improve the chances of finding failures by systematically exercising every program branch out of a decision point. To avoid such misunderstandings, a clear distinction should be made between test-related measures, which provide an evaluation of the program under test based on the observed test outputs, and those which evaluate the thoroughness of the test set.

Measurement is usually considered instrumental to quality analysis. Measurement may also be used to optimize the planning and execution of the tests. Test management can use several process measures to monitor progress.

Evaluation of the program under test (ieee982.1-98)

Program measurements to aid in planning and designing testing (iee982.1-88)

Measures based on program size (for example, source lines of code or function points) or on program structure (like complexity) are used to guide testing. Structural measures can also include measurements among program modules in terms of the frequency with which modules call each other.

Fault types, classification, and statistics (eee1044-93)

The testing literature is rich in classifications and taxonomies of faults. To make testing more effective, it is important to know which types of faults could be found in the software under test, and the relative frequency with which these faults have occurred in the past. This information can be very useful in making quality predictions, as well as for process improvement.

Questions & Answers

what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
draw context model for a patient information system in a hospital
shruti Reply
how to activate Microsoft word
Matthew Reply
To activate Microsoft word, please follow these steps below: 1. On windows 8.1 or Windows 10, choose start. 2. Scroll down through your apps and choose Microsoft office- the tile with the Office logo. 3. In the windows that open, choose Activate. 4. Do one of the following:
. If you are asked to sign in with your Microsoft account, that means you do not need a product key. proceed to the next step below and enter your Microsoft account. OR . If you are asked to enter a product key, this means a key was included with your purchase.
Look for it on your Certificate of Authenticity or a card in the packaging. If you cannot find it, contact your reseller. The key uses a combination of 25 letters and numbers and looks this: xxxxx-xxxxx-xxxxx-xxxxx-xxxxx. Enter your key in the space provided. 5. Sign in with your Microsoft account
to activate the Office product that came with your device.
What can we do with cmd
Ibrahim Reply
what is software
Igho Reply
is set of instructions (generally referred to as code), that is positioned between you and the device hardware, enable you to use it .
that's what a software can be defined as.
what is white box testing
What is software life cycle model? Why is it important during the development of a large softwre products
ramsahay Reply
explain About various types of software quality metrics
vijay Reply
I study software assignment course
Raza Reply
what is re process
naveen Reply
how to make software development projects
suresh Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Software engineering. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10790/1.1
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