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Closure activities

After closure has been confirmed, archival of project materials takes place in line with stakeholder-agreed methods, location, and duration. The organization’s measurement database is updated with final project data and post-project analyses are undertaken. A project post mortem is undertaken so that issues, problems, and opportunities encountered during the process are analyzed, and lessons are drawn from the process and fed into organizational learning and improvement .

Software engineering measurement

The importance of measurement and its role in better management practices is widely acknowledged, and so its importance can only increase in the coming years. Effective measurement has become one of the cornerstones of organizational maturity.

Key terms on software measures and measurement methods have been defined in ISO15939 on the basis of the ISO international vocabulary of metrology ISO93. Nevertheless, readers will encounter terminology differences in the literature; for example, the term “metrics” is sometimes used in place of “measures.”

This topic follows the international standard ISO/IEC 15939, which describes a process which defines the activities and tasks necessary to implement a software measurement process and includes, as well, a measurement information model.

Establish and sustain measurement commitment

  • Accept requirements for measurement. Each measurement endeavor should be guided by organizational objectives and driven by a set of measurement requirements established by the organization and the project. For example, an organizational objective might be “first-to-market with new products”. This in turn might engender a requirement that factors contributing to this objective be measured so that projects might be managed to meet this objective.
  • Define scope of measurement. The organizational unit to which each measurement requirement is to be applied must be established. This may consist of a functional area, a single project, a single site, or even the whole enterprise. All subsequent measurement tasks related to this requirement should be within the defined scope. In addition, the stakeholders should be identified.
  • Commitment of management and staff to measurement. The commitment must be formally established, communicated, and supported by resources (see next item).
  • Commit resources for measurement. The organization’s commitment to measurement is an essential factor for success, as evidenced by assignment of resources for implementing the measurement process. Assigning resources includes allocation of responsibility for the various tasks of the measurement process (such as user, analyst, and librarian) and providing adequate funding, training, tools, and support to conduct the process in an enduring fashion.

Plan the measurement process

  • Characterize the organizational unit. The organizational unit provides the context for measurement, so it is important to make this context explicit and to articulate the assumptions that it embodies and the constraints that it imposes. Characterization can be in terms of organizational processes, application domains, technology, and organizational interfaces. An organizational process model is also typically an element of the organizational unit characterization.
  • Identify information needs. Information needs are based on the goals, constraints, risks, and problems of the organizational unit. They may be derived from business, organizational, regulatory, and/or product objectives. They must be identified and prioritized. Then, a subset to be addressed must be selected and the results documented, communicated, and reviewed by stakeholders.
  • Select measures. Candidate measures must be selected, with clear links to the information needs. Measures must then be selected based on the priorities of the information needs and other criteria such as cost of collection, degree of process disruption during collection, ease of analysis, ease of obtaining accurate, consistent data.
  • Define data collection, analysis, and reporting procedures. This encompasses collection procedures and schedules, storage, verification, analysis, reporting, and configuration management of data.
  • Define criteria for evaluating the information products. Criteria for evaluation are influenced by the technical and business objectives of the organizational unit. Information products include those associated with the product being produced, as well as those associated with the processes being used to manage and measure the project.
  • Review, approve, and provide resources for measurement tasks.
  • The measurement plan must be reviewed and approved by the appropriate stakeholders. This includes all data collection procedures, storage, analysis, and reporting procedures; evaluation criteria; schedules; and responsibilities. Criteria for reviewing these artifacts should have been established at the organizational unit level or higher and should be used as the basis for these reviews. Such criteria should take into consideration previous experience, availability of resources, and potential disruptions to projects when changes from current practices are proposed.
  • Resources should be made available for implementing the planned and approved measurement tasks. Resource availability may be staged in cases where changes are to be piloted before widespread deployment. Consideration should be paid to the resources necessary for successful deployment of new procedures or measures.
  • Acquire and deploy supporting technologies. This includes evaluation of available supporting technologies, selection of the most appropriate technologies, acquisition of those technologies, and deployment of those technologies.

Perform the measurement process

  • Integrate measurement procedures with relevant processes. The measurement procedures, such as data collection, must be integrated into the processes they are measuring. This may involve changing current processes to accommodate data collection or generation activities. It may also involve analysis of current processes to minimize additional effort and evaluation of the effect on employees to ensure that the measurement procedures will be accepted. Morale issues and other human factors need to be considered. In addition, the measurement procedures must be communicated to those providing the data, training may need to be provided, and support must typically be provided. Data analysis and reporting procedures must typically be integrated into organizational and/or project processes in a similar manner.
  • Collect data. The data must be collected, verified, and stored.
  • Analyze data and develop information products. Data may be aggregated, transformed, or recoded as part of the analysis process, using a degree of rigor appropriate to the nature of the data and the information needs. The results of this analysis are typically indicators such as graphs, numbers, or other indications that must be interpreted, resulting in initial conclusions to be presented to stakeholders. The results and conclusions must be reviewed, using a process defined by the organization (which may be formal or informal). Data providers and measurement users should participate in reviewing the data to ensure that they are meaningful and accurate, and that they can result in reasonable actions.
  • Communicate results. Information products must be documented and communicated to users and stakeholders.

Evaluate measurement

  • Evaluate information products. Evaluate information products against specified evaluation criteria and determine strengths and weaknesses of the information products. This may be performed by an internal process or an external audit and should include feedback from measurement users. Record lessons learned in an appropriate database.
  • Evaluate the measurement process. Evaluate the measurement process against specified evaluation criteria and determine the strengths and weaknesses of the process. This may be performed by an internal process or an external audit and should include feedback from measurement users.
  • Identify potential improvements. Such improvements may be changes in the format of indicators, changes in units measured, or reclassification of categories. Determine the costs and benefits of potential improvements and select appropriate improvement actions. Communicate proposed improvements to the measurement process owner and stakeholders for review and approval. Also communicate lack of potential improvements if the analysis fails to identify improvements.

References:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_engineering, http://ocw.mit.edu/OcwWeb/Electrical-Engineering-and-Computer-Science/6-171Fall2003/CourseHome/,http://www.cs.cornell.edu/courses/cs501/2008sp/, http://www.comp.lancs.ac.uk/computing/resources/IanS/SE7/,http://www.ee.unb.ca/kengleha/courses/CMPE3213/IntroToSoftwareEng.htm, http://cs.wwc.edu/~aabyan/435/Management.html,http://www.sei.cmu.edu/programs/sepm/, etc...

Questions & Answers

how can i ave install usb drive but get it not connecting phone
Micheal Reply
hmm
abang
may be it has a problem
abang
maybe u should change usb drive
gabriel
what is 404 error
Hemant Reply
different cmmi level
Sahil Reply
Please I need a teacher
shittu
wht teacher u need?
HANAN
hi
RITESH
is software
RITESH
hello
sarbajeet
good morning all
Hemant
heyy
Ultimate
hi hi
HANAN
hehahahahahha
amjad
what is cmmi
Mulukutla Reply
what are the benefits of been a software engineer
Amissah
hi
Sunday
gud morning oo
Sunday
kk
Sunday
the benefits are life changing
Louis
can have your own ai
Louis
an ai system
Louis
is studying software engineer needs to be math expertise?
Carmela
depends on what your doing
Louis
grasp the whole field by being a problem solver
Louis
mathematics is the language of computing
Louis
but also its the language of the universe
Louis
before you start typing code please plan on pen and paper first with a goal in mind.
Louis
Thank you !!
Carmela
Are you a software engineer already?
Carmela
mathematics is not compulsory for coding
Nadday
just needed basic Nexus calculations
Nadday
what programming language ?
Louis
@Carnela Villegas : Your welcome
Louis
engineering in process student of software engineering
Nadday
@Naddy Naddy: What programming language are you using if i may ask ?
Louis
couple of languages are there not bounded specifically to single one
Nadday
python, Java, Java script, php, swift, go, c# and many more are trending in
Nadday
Java is now superseding his popularity but still the one of the most used coding language
Nadday
I want to be a software engineer too ...
Carmela
best of luck
Nadday
python is now
Louis
python is used by nasa and for data science aswell for live coding and hacking
Louis
it is the fastest growing language to date
Louis
but being efficient at math is a general stand point if your not language specific
Louis
but c++ can't be beat
Louis
especially with the new c++20 coming
Louis
swift for apple
Louis
swift is made by c code
Louis
c++ is > c
Louis
yes pathon is invented in 1991 by guido van rusom it's popular now a days but it's literally used now as much a Java and Java script php but still most popular python
Nadday
c made java
Louis
java is still convenient though
Louis
c made by bell laboratories one of the basic coding languages
Nadday
windows also used it
Nadday
it just depends on what goal you have in mind to you have in mind to use programming language as a conversion
Louis
mathematics > any programming language
Louis
😊
Louis
sorry I've accidentally placed a question mark lol
Louis
😂
Louis
sorry I couldn't get your point
Nadday
no i was saying my device placed 2 question marks accidentally
Louis
but your very intelligent aswell my friend where do you stay if i may ask @Naddy Naddy ?
Louis
I am from Pakistan
Nadday
awesome im from united states my friend nice to meet you lol
Louis
thank you same here
Nadday
😇
Louis
I am doing coding for the elimination of the cyber crimes and strengthen the cyber security
Nadday
Thats awesome im a defcon spy
Louis
white hat
Louis
im a good guy 😊
Louis
nice to hear
Nadday
coding phenomena practice practice and practice
Nadday
yeah same
Louis
thanks. good to know - ' practice practice and practice!'
oh yeah guys alien being exist other than us
Louis
👽
Louis
I like to be software engineer
Toheeb
what is the leading programming language in the world?
HANAN
I have mentioned the names above
Nadday
@HANAN
Louis
ahh ok i will check @Nadday Nadday
HANAN
java ri8 🤞 @Nadday Nadday
HANAN
yes Java is also but not we could limitize the premises
Nadday
there are many others also
Nadday
i mean i ask the best top 1 ..which language is that @Nadday Nadday
HANAN
@HANAN THE PROGRAMMER IS THE LEADING PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE OF THE WORLD IG YOU KNOW WHAT I MEAN
Louis
@HANAN whatever language your most comfortable with
Louis
ohhh thank u @Louis johnson
HANAN
i love to be a software engineer but i dont know how to learn😔
HANAN
go for formal education
Nadday
now i m doing Advance level + HND in Computing and System Develipment... this time i have to finish my assignment but still i didn't finish ... i like to be a software engineer ....but i don't know how to
HANAN
your previous education level @hanan?
Nadday
@HANAN as an advanced human just build your own learning strategy in which is the best way anyway through trial and error or books self learn teach output to others who are willing to learn from ground up from the organization you've built and spread
Louis
@louis johnson ok i will try😊👍...anyway thank u soo much guys @Nadday and @louis
HANAN
@HANAN any errors that need to be fixed just fix along the way in future from your atomic learning process
Louis
learn the difference in micro and macro put it to use as a handle in real reality objective analysis
Louis
thank u soo much bro @louis ...are u a software engineer?
HANAN
your major sujects in hnd
Nadday
I'm a Human lol
Louis
make your basic concepts through c and C ++
Nadday
but yes im a core engineer
Louis
you can say Engineering scientist
Louis
it is the sole centre and Nexus of coding
Nadday
how to start making a software?
Jerry Reply
books or teacher
Louis
both of
Hemant
both
ben
i prefer books and a reference teacher on side im self taught self learn everything
Louis
time is your best friend
Louis
I want learn more as well
Ogunrinde
well honestly it would be too large to explain everything in chat but, pick the programming language of choice your most comfortable with, learn that language, make it yours, use it as a primary language to learn in parallel any other language of object oriented programming,
Louis
also it wouldn't hurt to have a basic background in math
Louis
but be a scientist behind the machine(Computer)
Louis
have math be your way of translation of human to computer interaction because you can solve any problem in the universe with mathematics
Louis
good to know discrete topics embedded systems, electrical engineering
Louis
doesn't hurt to have a buddy to team up on project while your asleep to keep progressing
Louis
(Important!..) have real data to work on, the reason is because there have to be some goal to be achieved at some point.
Louis
Be alittle greedy to learn any and all about any language you use.
Louis
Another important thing is not to rush through learning
Louis
once you learn a concept try teaching the concept to someone else who is as interested as you are, that way. the concept will be stuck concretely in your mind.
Louis
slow but sure please guys.education is not like food.
Emmanuel
if you like graphics and games you can use a language that have graphics libraries such as C++, Python, or Java as an example
Louis
who can tell Why software is more important in computer science
Emmanuel
don't just learn alittle want the whole thing and want to know everything at your finger tips
Louis
grasp
Louis
because the hardware and software is useful depends on how useful your goal is
Louis
graphics is not about database management system.c++ is about programming.
Emmanuel
be an android who's drug is "addicted to information" related to the field.
Louis
and in need of the most complex algorithm update
Louis
learn console applications
Louis
how does your languge relate to databases
Louis
and web programming
Louis
i know just throwing some things your way to open mind
Louis
im certi at c++
Louis
it is a general programming language used to build many infrastructure
Louis
including database web and many other soft ware frameworks
Louis
excellent
Ogunrinde
Thanks
Louis
Suppose we are faced with developing a system that we expect to have 100000LOC. Compute the effort and the effort development time for each of the three development modes i.e. Organic, semi - detached and embedded .
yukta Reply
c++ or python or java
Louis
Discuss multi threading as used in windows, Linux and Unix
James Reply
what is software ?
Chirag Reply
Software is a general term for the various kinds of programs used to operate computers and related devices...
amjad
what is ergonomics.
amjad
er·go·nom·ics ˌərɡəˈnämiks/ noun the study of people's efficiency in their working environment
Louis
software is the principal of the application with the therm of testing desgin much more
Secret
what is software integration?how can you integrate two different softwares with one single module?
strings Reply
Either type casting or template rogramming through STL
Louis
use c++
Louis
what is the STL?
abdo
STANDARD TEMPLATE LIBRARY
Louis
thanks louis
abdo
your welcome my friend
Louis
I have another question guy's.What's the HTML?
Zuheyp Reply
An HTML is  a standardized system for tagging text files to achieve font, colour, graphic, and hyperlink effects on World Wide Web pages.
Hemant
it is also a computer language devised to allow website creation
Hemant
you're clever Man
Zuheyp
i have a c++ question
Louis
C++ is a general-purpose, case-sensitive, free-form programming language that supports procedural, object-oriented, and generic programming. C++ is regarded as a middle-level language, as it comprises a combination of both high-level and low-level language features. C++ was deve
Zuheyp
what's the relationship Design Define Debug Development Development
Zuheyp Reply
sorry question is confusing
Louis
ok
Zuheyp
Define attached Design attached Development attached Debug attached Deployment attached Define
Zuheyp
Attach and deploy components to environments instead of directly to an Atom. Components can be attached and deployed to different environments with unique build versions and can include different deploy-time settings.
Hemant
is it same?
Zuheyp
and debug:If your app is already running on your device, you can start debugging without restarting 
Hemant
yeah that's cool
Zuheyp
Am mean that's right
Zuheyp
and select the debug target
Hemant
What is C language?
Bashir Reply
short note on software engineering
prachi Reply
am interested
marvellous
Explain human computer interaction
amjad
AI
Louis
Human computer interaction is the study of how people interact with computers and to what extent computers are or are not developed for successful interaction with human beings. 
Hemant
human needs for the computer[stated]
Louis
AI=Artificial Intelligence
Louis
all explained abstractingly
Louis
Please give me a Standard definition of the word *software*
marvellous
collection of program is called software
Hemant
explain DBMS
Elias
what is sowftware?
rana Reply
please correct the spellings of software
majid
kk
Amissah
soft ware is the Application of principles used in field of engineering
Zuheyp
how do you compare c++ concepts with unity and directx pipeline
Louis
software is a collection of program.
Hemant
software engineering eligiblelity criteria for DAE civil students?
Engr Reply
Kya kar rahe sir
Mohit
scrolling youtube
MUHAMMAD
Hello, am new here. Am Samuel from Ghana (West Africa). hope am welcome to learn with you.
Samuel
welcome
amjad
thanks Muhammad
Samuel
hi
RITESH

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Source:  OpenStax, Software engineering. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10790/1.1
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