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Middle-income nations

The World Bank defines middle-income economies areas those with a GNI per capita of more than $1,045 but less than $12,746. According to the World Bank (2014), in 2013, the average GNI per capita of an upper middle income nation was $7,594 per capita with a total population of 2.049 billion, of which 62 percent was urban. Thailand, China, and Namibia are examples of middle-income nations (World Bank 2014a).

Perhaps the most pressing issue for middle-income nations is the problem of debt accumulation. As the name suggests, debt accumulation    is the buildup of external debt, wherein countries borrow money from other nations to fund their expansion or growth goals. As the uncertainties of the global economy make repaying these debts, or even paying the interest on them, more challenging, nations can find themselves in trouble. Once global markets have reduced the value of a country’s goods, it can be very difficult to ever manage the debt burden. Such issues have plagued middle-income countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, as well as East Asian and Pacific nations (Dogruel and Dogruel 2007). By way of example, even in the European Union, which is composed of more core nations than semi-peripheral nations, the semi-peripheral nations of Italy and Greece face increasing debt burdens. The economic downturns in both Greece and Italy still threaten the economy of the entire European Union.

Low-income nations

The World Bank defines low-income countries as nations whose per capita GNI was $1,045 per capita or less in 2013. According to the World Bank (2014a), in 2013, the average per capita GNI of a low-income nation was $528 per capita and the total population was 796,261,360, with 28 percent located in urban areas. For example, Myanmar, Ethiopia, and Somalia are considered low-income countries. Low-income economies are primarily found in Asia and Africa (World Bank 2014a), where most of the world’s population lives. There are two major challenges that these countries face: women are disproportionately affected by poverty (in a trend toward a global feminization of poverty) and much of the population lives in absolute poverty.

Summary

Stratification refers to the gaps in resources both between nations and within nations. While economic equality is of great concern, so is social equality, like the discrimination stemming from race, ethnicity, gender, religion, and/or sexual orientation. While global inequality is nothing new, several factors make it more relevant than ever, like the global marketplace and the pace of information sharing. Researchers try to understand global inequality by classifying it according to factors such as how industrialized a nation is, whether a country serves as a means of production or as an owner, and what income a nation produces.

Short answer

Consider the matter of rock-bottom prices at Walmart. What would a functionalist think of Walmart's model of squeezing vendors to get the absolute lowest prices so it can pass them along to core nation consumers?

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Why do you think some scholars find Cold War terminology (“first world” and so on) objectionable?

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Give an example of the feminization of poverty in core nations. How is it the same or different in peripheral nations?

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Pretend you are a sociologist studying global inequality by looking at child labor manufacturing Barbie dolls in China. What do you focus on? How will you find this information? What theoretical perspective might you use?

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Further research

To learn more about the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, look here: (External Link)

To learn more about the existence and impact of global poverty, peruse the data here: (External Link)

References

Amnesty International. 2012. “Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity.” Retrieved January 3, 2012 ( (External Link) ).

Castells, Manuel. 1998. End of Millennium . Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Central Intelligence Agency. 2012. “The World Factbook.” Retrieved January 5, 2012 ( (External Link) ).

Central Intelligence Agency. 2014. “Country Comparison: Infant Mortality Rate.” Retrieved November 7, 2014 (https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-worldfactbook/rankorder/2091rank.html?countryname=Canada&countrycode=ca&regionCode=noa&rank=182#ca).

Dogruel, Fatma, and A. Suut Dogruel. 2007. “Foreign Debt Dynamics in Middle Income Countries.” Paper presented January 4, 2007 at Middle East Economic Association Meeting, Allied Social Science Associations, Chicago, IL.

Moghadam, Valentine M. 2005. “The Feminization of Poverty and Women’s Human Rights.” Gender Equality and Development Section UNESCO, July. Paris, France.

Myrdal, Gunnar. 1970. The Challenge of World Poverty: A World Anti-Poverty Program in Outline . New York: Pantheon.

Oxfam. 2014. “Working for the Few: Political Capture and Economic Inequality.” Oxfam.org. Retrieved November 7, 2014 (http://www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/bp-working-for-few-political-capture-economic-inequality-200114-summ-en.pdf).

United Nations. 2013. "Millennium Development Goals." Retrieved November 7, 2014 (http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/bkgd.shtml).

Wallerstein, Immanuel. 1979. The Capitalist World Economy . Cambridge, England: Cambridge World Press.

World Bank. 2014a. “Gender Overview.” Retrieved November 7, 2014 (http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/gender/overview#1).

World Bank. 2014b. “High Income: OECD: Data.” Retrieved November 7, 2014 (http://data.worldbank.org/income-level/OEC).

World Bank. 2014c. “Low Income: Data.” Retrieved November 7, 2014 (http://data.worldbank.org/income-level/LIC).

World Bank. 2014d. “Upper Middle Income: Data.” Retrieved November 7, 2014 (http://data.worldbank.org/income-level/UMC).

Questions & Answers

Who is Abdul Rahman Ibn-Khadun and what role did he play in the founding of sociology?
Michael Reply
What's the full name of Auguste Conte?
Michael
What is social learning theory?
Paul Reply
what is rural sociology
Abigail
and why do we study it in school
Abigail
Rural Sociology is simply the sociology of village societies. It seeks to understand the social structure and group interactions of rural communities.
Ato
Why study rural sociology? Basically: 1. It scientifically enhances our understanding of the social processes, organization and structure of rural folks.
Ato
2. Our understanding of rural communities (e.g rural access to food and agriculture or natural resource) facilitates rural planning and development (resource allocation)
Ato
hi
Prince
rural sociology is the scientific study of the rural people and their ways of life that includes there occupation , their life style and there culture.
ANIH
Agrarian sociology also parts in rural sociology.
Sayantani
what s about the future of a sociology student?
Ahson
To be able to study a particular society and come out with their way of life, problems facing them and be able to analyze and work out possible solutions to that problems (long term results). This is the future of a sociology student.
Prince
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Zahid
fine thank you Zahid
Prince
Social learning theory is learning & social behavior which proposes new behaviors that is acquired by observing & imitating others.
Holly
Sociology is a scientific study which is a development, structure, and processes of human society. The systematic methods are to examine & explain the social world by careful & objective analysis of human behavior.
Holly
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Muhammad Reply
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the
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Muhammad
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the
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Routlode
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Routlode
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Ghulam
what is the question for the day
Eric
in what ways did Karl Marx views of religion differ from those of max Weber's?
Nolissa
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Zahid Reply
karl marx is the champion of sociol class and class conflict
Ghulam
Who is Michel Foucault?
Justbe
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Zahid Reply
a culture within a larger culture
Rehmat
There can be many sub cultures
Sayantani
what is really social change
Bobby Reply
changes occurred in both the structural and functional aspects of any socity is called social change.
Rahii
what is ethnic group
Shani Reply
ethnic group can be defined as a group of people belonging to one tribe or a group of related tribes
Sheikh
Why should I study sociology?
Michael Reply
in order that you gain the values, norms and custom of the society
Constance
to how to use scientific method in solving social problems
Eric
what are the scientific methods used in solving these social problems?
Routlode
experiments
Constance
or empirical method
Constance
or the technology in solving social problems
Eric
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Lukman
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Lukman
in order to have skills in solving social problems and drawing better plans that will help put our societies in good shape.
Prince
. What is the micro-macro relationship and how does it relate to the sociological imagination? b. Provide four situational sets as examples that explain the social construction of reality using the framework C. W. Mills theoretical discourse.
Kevorn Reply
how to critically analysis social behaviors of class
Boakye Reply
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Fighter
oh hello
Ghulam
which place this
Routlode
please i want reasons why sociology is important to be studied by a nurse
Mhiyharrh
Sociology helps nurses to identify the psycho- social problems of patients , which helps important the quality of treatment. It helps the nurses understand the behavior & conflicts.
Holly
@Mhiyharrh Baby, don't forget the social science which an umbrella that emcopasses sociology and other social sciences was under natural science but inability of natural science to study and fund solutions to the problems of human interaction (social) gave birth to social science (sociology) thus,
Ahmed
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Mhiyharrh
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Ahmed
of understanding individual cultural differences which encompasses all factor that may facilitate effective hospitalization. in a nutshell, sociology equipped you to understand your patients in relation to their ailment. thanks
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Mhiyharrh
it helps nurses understand behavior, interpersonal relationship, group adaptation etc of different people working in the hospital.
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evadne
what is meant by reference group
Akak
reference group are particular group whose members attitudes, beliefs, and behavior serve for us first as a source of norms and second as a yardstick for comparison.
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Routlode
sociology is a interpretative discipline which dealt with the human behaviour, interaction etc
Akak
what is meant by descent and lineage
Akak
Descent is a social group of people that's identified by a common ancestor, real or imagined.
who give the concept of negative education
Zahid Reply
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sohit Reply
yes
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ANU
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actually I also want to take sociology optional for upsc
ANU
Woow
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hello i am new to this subject ... anyone plz explain difference between social and sociological problems ...
Ali
what's Feminism?
samuel Reply
the adocacy on the ground the rights for women in the basis of sexism
Atta
wat is the concept of social living
Sherie Reply
what is egoistic suicide
Ghulam
egoistic suicide is when someone commits suicide as part of not feeling like they belong in society. It is also when someone struggles to find a reason to live and people who do commit egoistic suicide have weak or very little social bonds to their society.
Holly
is it that they dont have the relation with others in the society or they dont try to fit in...or better still they are mostly rejected
Barimah
A social structure is where human beings in a society interact & live together. A social life is seen as an individual's interpersonal relationships within peoples immediate surroundings or general public.
Holly
what is sexism
Gelana Reply
I'm not sure of the exact definition. I will define it as: the sociological term that refers to inequality and bias between the two genders.
Elizabeth
well. it the study is social interaction, and society
EMMANUEL
sexism is the descrimination in the basis of a person's gender.
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Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to sociology 2e. OpenStax CNX. Jan 20, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11762/1.6
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