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Statistics such as infant mortality rates and life expectancy vary greatly by country of origin. (Central Intelligence Agency 2011)
Country Infant Mortality Rate Life Expectancy
Norway 2.48 deaths per 1000 live births 81 years
The United States 6.17 deaths per 1000 live births 79 years
North Korea 24.50 deaths per 1000 live births 70 years
Afghanistan 117.3 deaths per 1000 live births 50 years

Most of us are accustomed to thinking of global stratification as economic inequality. For example, we can compare the United States’ average worker’s wage to America’s average wage. Social inequality, however, is just as harmful as economic discrepancies. Prejudice and discrimination—whether against a certain race, ethnicity, religion, or the like—can create and aggravate conditions of economic equality, both within and between nations. Think about the inequity that existed for decades within the nation of South Africa. Apartheid, one of the most extreme cases of institutionalized and legal racism, created a social inequality that earned it the world’s condemnation.

Gender inequity is another global concern. Consider the controversy surrounding female genital mutilation. Nations that practice this female circumcision procedure defend it as a longstanding cultural tradition in certain tribes and argue that the West shouldn’t interfere. Western nations, however, decry the practice and are working to stop it.

Inequalities based on sexual orientation and gender identity exist around the globe. According to Amnesty International, a number of crimes are committed against individuals who do not conform to traditional gender roles or sexual orientations (however those are culturally defined). From culturally sanctioned rape to state-sanctioned executions, the abuses are serious. These legalized and culturally accepted forms of prejudice and discrimination exist everywhere—from the United States to Somalia to Tibet—restricting the freedom of individuals and often putting their lives at risk (Amnesty International 2012).

Global classification

A major concern when discussing global inequality is how to avoid an ethnocentric bias implying that less-developed nations want to be like those who’ve attained post-industrial global power. Terms such as developing (nonindustrialized) and developed (industrialized) imply that unindustrialized countries are somehow inferior, and must improve to participate successfully in the global economy, a label indicating that all aspects of the economy cross national borders. We must take care how we delineate different countries. Over time, terminology has shifted to make way for a more inclusive view of the world.

Cold war terminology

Cold War terminology was developed during the Cold War era (1945–1980). Familiar and still used by many, it classifies countries into first world, second world, and third world nations based on their respective economic development and standards of living. When this nomenclature was developed, capitalistic democracies such as the United States and Japan were considered part of the first world    . The poorest, most undeveloped countries were referred to as the third world    and included most of sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, and Asia. The second world    was the in-between category: nations not as limited in development as the third world, but not as well off as the first world, having moderate economies and standard of living, such as China or Cuba. Later, sociologist Manual Castells (1998) added the term fourth world    to refer to stigmatized minority groups that were denied a political voice all over the globe (indigenous minority populations, prisoners, and the homeless, for example).

Questions & Answers

how relevant is socialization to law
Salihu Reply
Can anyone tell the form of family
Inoto Reply
wrire the function of family
Ahammad Reply
what is marriage
Ahammad Reply
Marriage ia a socialy and legaly rocognized social bond between two people for the procreation of offsprings and satisfaction of sexual desires. With the tie of marriage there generates right and duties on both partners to comply with.
Sadiq
types of marriage
Ahammad
Monogamy, Polygamy, Polygyny, Polyandry , Bigamy
Sadiq
function of marriage
Ahammad
it is explained in definition
Sadiq
what do you mean by Endogamy
Ahammad
who is the father of sociology
Ahammad Reply
ibne khaldoom
Sajan
what is sociology
Ahammad
study of people groups society and interactions.
Sajan
write the definition of "types of marriage "
Ahammad
important of social science research in our contemporary society
Sharif Reply
Social research is an important source of knowledge. It provides updated, proved, authentic and very useful information to the end users.
manisha
Structural Changes. Social research is responsible for bringing structural changes in a social life.
manisha
Social Prediction. Social research helps in making laws and the relation between social laws and their factors.
manisha
we apply social research to a society for bringing social order and control.
manisha
New Techniques. Social Research introduces new techniques and improves the old ones.
manisha
how positivism is used in social science
Sam Reply
Positivists believe that sociology can and should use the same methods and approaches to study the social world that “natural” sciences such as biology and physics use to investigate the physical world.
manisha
positivists use quantitative methods such as official statistics, structured questionnaires and social surveys. Statistical, numerical data is crucial to Positivist research. Positivists need to collect statistical information in order to make comparisons. And in order to uncover general social tren
manisha
auguste compte
Edouard
August Comte is known as the father of Sociology.
Moses
what is Darwin's theory?
Kashmiri
What are the e contribution of Auguste Compt to Sociology?
Muhammad
August comte
Rahein
difference between polygamy and polyandry
Arvina Reply
polygamy having more than 1wife ...and polyandry having more than 1husband
sai
explanation on human Development
Hamukwele Reply
Happy independence day to all indians. Let we live with peace love harmony and friendliness with each other without any discrimination on the basis of religion, caste, race, class, gender, power, economic, political, professional and status. Jai hind.
manisha Reply
Respect and peace.
Leonard
happy independence day to all....
Dr.
happy independent to Indians 🇮🇳
Favour
nice to hear from all of you. i know people are here from all around the world. first msg is definitely for indians as today is independence day for them. and other msg can be receive by others.. gratitude..
manisha
happy independence Day
Kashmiri
Happy Independence day to you all Indians.
Umar
happy independence Day from Occupied Kashmir.
rameez
thanks
manisha
what is sociology
Ali Reply
the study of social problem
Sanjib
Sociology is the systematic study of diverse human culture.
Jimmielyn
who is father of sociology
Surjeet Reply
seriously man. y ppl ask this ques again n again. august comte :)
manisha
Class and class structure
priyanka Reply
G S Gurye
Suraj
society is jenus headed is an animal and has two head discuss this in the lite of culture
Hajja Reply
i need the answer urgent
Hajja
where are you from
babar
i guess there is something missing in the question.. kindly write it again
hasan
What causes social stratification
Alexander
Assalamu alaikum Happy independence day to pakistani friends. Love from india..
manisha
jenus? is this an English word
Nwofor
the two head i believe is language and culture
Nwofor
culture is our beliefs....
Dr.
beliefs, values, behavior
Dr.
I am a student of MSc socialogy
Kashmiri
thanks ....manisha
Rehmat
Types of Societies?
Kashmiri
hunting and gathering
Rehmat
horticultural
Rehmat
pastoral
Rehmat
industrial
Rehmat
post industrial
Rehmat
bio genetic
Rehmat
how social reseach is an approach to confirm the observations and pattern of behaviours prevailing in the society
sitta Reply
any body with answer pleaz
sitta

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Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to sociology 2e. OpenStax CNX. Jan 20, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11762/1.6
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