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As the Social Policy&Debate feature illustrates, the suburbs also have their share of socio-economic problems. In the United States, white flight    refers to the migration of economically secure white people from racially mixed urban areas and toward the suburbs. This occurred throughout the twentieth century, due to causes as diverse as the legal end of racial segregation established by Brown v. Board of Education to the Mariel boatlift of Cubans fleeing Cuba’s Mariel port for Miami. Current trends include middle-class African-American families following white flight patterns out of cities, while affluent whites return to cities that have historically had a black majority. The result is that the issues of race, socio-economics, neighborhoods, and communities remain complicated and challenging.

Urbanization around the world

During the Industrial Era, there was a growth spurt worldwide. The development of factories brought people from rural to urban areas, and new technology increased the efficiency of transportation, food production, and food preservation. For example, from the mid-1670s to the early 1900s, London's population increased from 550,000 to 7 million (Old Bailey Proceedings Online 2011). Global favorites like New York, London, and Tokyo are all examples of postindustrial cities. As cities evolve from manufacturing-based industrial to service- and information-based postindustrial societies, gentrification becomes more common. Gentrification occurs when members of the middle and upper classes enter and renovate city areas that have been historically less affluent while the poor urban underclass are forced by resulting price pressures to leave those neighborhoods for increasingly decaying portions of the city.

Globally, 54 percent of the world’s 7 billion people currently reside in urban areas, with the most urbanized region being North America (82 percent), followed by Latin America/the Caribbean (80 percent), with Europe coming in third (72 percent). In comparison, Africa is only 40 percent urbanized. With 38 million people, Tokyo is the world’s largest city by population. The world’s most densely populated cities are now largely concentrated in the global south, a marked change from several decades ago when the biggest cities were found in the global north. In the next forty years, the biggest global challenge for urbanized populations, particularly in less developed countries, will be to achieve development that occurs without depleting or damaging the natural environment, also called sustainable development    (United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division 2014).

Theoretical perspectives on urbanization

The issues of urbanization play significant roles in the study of sociology. Race, economics, and human behavior intersect in cities. Let’s look at urbanization through the sociological perspectives of functionalism and conflict theory. Functional perspectives on urbanization generally focus on the ecology of the city, while conflict perspective tends to focus on political economy.

Questions & Answers

importance of sociology
Swaleh Reply
it helps us to understand social basis of problems and to resolve them as we came to know about cause of its origin.it also enable us to draw relation between two or more social facts
wayne
OK but
Ibrahim
what?
wayne
veiws regarding sociology
Reuben Reply
discuss social structure
Jacob Reply
social structure explains about how the relation between social groups are organised at macro level .In micro level,it also helps us to understand how interaction between individuals will happens
wayne
how we explain historical development of society
Bilal
you should study evolutionary perspective it may be help to explain historical development of society
Ismail
what is wright
Achyut Reply
What is d importance of d study sociology? Can someone help me please
onoja Reply
ok m telling u just in general. for answering in papers u can get details from online. By studying sociology we come to know why such society is today. What the hell is going on in society from down the ages. :) Why people are differ from place to place. Though we know in general without studying.
manisha
but it just showing a bigger picture to us. These concepts dont help much in life. But we can know why people r this coz they r attached to some concept.
manisha
to get marks u write this.. 1 sociology detects and Solve Social Problems 2Sociology Helps in Planning and Development 3. Sociology makes a scientific study of Sociology 4 studies role of the institutions in the development of the individuals. 5 Helps in Preservation and Growth of Culture
manisha
6.sociology has made broaden the outlook of man. 7 Sociology is of great importance in the solution of international problems. 
manisha
if we study to learn from the subject we can surelyget something from it and we may want to do something for society.
manisha
Sociology help in giving us the insight about what and how human society works. It increases our horizon about the social world and improves interaction our with one another. Sociology also provide us with the view of cultural relativism.
Simon
it helps us to know the importance of socializing and how to understand others people's beliefs.
Cecilia
nice
manisha
what is social stratification
Ibrahim
Wow Manisha thanks to u guys I appreciate
onoja
Hello can someone please tell me the job prospects for a sociology student
abdulaziz
Firstly is the study of human activity in the community, therefore it includes everything that happens around the people in the society
Martin
sociology helps you understand the meaning of life itself.
Christopher
Hello, am new here and please and I need your help with this " Theoretical explanation of scientific progress "
Christopher
Can someone help me with the agents of social stratification
Martin Reply
power pristag wealth caste
Ismail
social stratification is used to separate identity of one group from another ,usually on basis of superiority and inferiority.so any sort of power either political or economical or educational or even racial are set as benchmarks or agents for social stratification
wayne
How is sociology different from other discipline?
onoja Reply
sociology involves study of different aspects of society economical,political,social.However, other discipline involves studying one particular aspects of life,for example political science study distribution of power in society
wayne
what is social stratification
Ibrahim
social stratification is method of differentiating one group from other . The basis of this differentiation could be any sort of dominance,like economic (class system) ,political ,educational ,racial or caste system of india.In some cases ,it is ascribed( caste) and in other it is acheived(class).
wayne
stratified the people of society according to rank, social position,profession and wealth
Ismail
How is sociology different from other discipline?
onoja Reply
If Emmanuel Joseph sieyes was 1st to coin the term sociology in 1780 why den August comte is regarded as d founding father of sociology?
onoja Reply
coz he was the first who associate the study with humans. formal launch was by Comte only in 1838
manisha
credit goes to comte for invention of sociology. comte was bot satusfied with sys. of social events so he wanted to introduce new science which is away from spirituality philosophical thoughts n which study social events in scientific manner.
manisha
he wanted to name this new branch into physics but name was already taken by adolf for diff. subj then he changed it into sociology 1838 by joining two words greek n latin lang. socius n logos
manisha
herbert spencer also liked to choose sociology name. in this way sociology emerged. today we r studying.
manisha
Accepted d fact Dat he was 1st to associate d discipline with human.. Am convinced now.... Thanks Manisha
onoja
If I may ask,, how did comte relate sociology to human?
onoja
sociology is not study of humans but group of humans i.e society. comte only started the analytical study of patterns of human n social grps. diff organs of society. psychology is study if human.
manisha
Thanks
onoja
interesting manisha
yakubu
Social TheoryDelete Auguste ComteEarly Forefather (1798-1857) • Three Stages of Social Evolution • Social Physics • Positivism QUOTATION “Now, the existing disorder is abundantly accounted for by the existence, all at once, of three incompatible philosophies, -- the theological, the metaphysical
Hassan
Thumbs
onoja
How is d application of d science methodology possible in sociology?
onoja
why do we study sociology law as as a course
Babagana Reply
how does population affect the social and economy policy of a country
Emmanuel Reply
The socioeconomic policy of a country can be affected when there is high rate of fertility which give rise to population explosion which lead to poverty and then crime in such society.
Simon
The characteristics of population affects social and economic policy of country.In a country of religious population ,the economic policy is modified according to their tradition,for example cow meat to remove problem of food hunger is banned in India despite excess cows.
wayne
I need more understanding about sociology.
Olausi Reply
The first social scientist to use the term sociology was a Frenchman by the name of Auguste Comte who lived from 1798-1857. As coined by Comte, the term sociology is a combination of two words. The first part of the term is a Latin, socius- that may variously mean society, association, togetherness
sekou
what is social contracts
Yusuf
more explain
Olausi
what make sociology a science?
Nanzing
sociology is a science because it uses science methodology in arriving at it's finding
ANIH
How does sociology apply this methodology in its findings? Need help
onoja
social contract are usually associated with political scientist,Thomas Hobbes,john Locke, and Rousseau. In this concept,a social group delegates it's power to either single person or group of few to govern them to make social condition amicable to live in .This delegation comes with right& duties
wayne
what is the medical sociology
Krish Reply
correct cronology of study method suggested by August comte?
Aida Reply
sociology is a scientific discipline, what make it a science?
Nanzing
we use scientific mathods with facts and real observations to study the society
Batch
what is the medical sociology
Krish
I think it the study of Medical organisation or institution, how they work, their Mathods etc
Batch
what is sociological imagination?
Hamanta
it's a kind of imagination by which we can divert our mind or take us away from daily life routine surrounding society
Batch
in sociological imag. we think outside the box. we relate our problem with other or society as a whole. in this way we come to know that its not us who facing this problm infact others too facing it.
manisha
we also think in terms of others also. we view others pt. of view too.
manisha
Manisha 👍👍
Batch
thanks for the explanation
Batch
what is sociological alienation
Batch
alienation is we feel isolated from society. we gets aloof from society.
manisha
and what are reason behind it ?
Batch
according to august comte wats sociology
Deme
can some one clearly defined Sociology for me
Justin Reply
study of groups n group intetactions, societies n social interactions from small n personal groups to very large groups.
manisha
study of society and interaction among peoples...
Neelma

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Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to sociology 2e. OpenStax CNX. Jan 20, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11762/1.6
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