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Various models of global stratification all have one thing in common: they rank countries according to their relative economic status, or gross national product (GNP). Traditional models, now considered outdated, used labels to describe the stratification of the different areas of the world. Simply put, they were named “first world, “second world,” and “third world.” First and second world described industrialized nations, while third world referred to “undeveloped” countries (Henslin 2004). When researching existing historical sources, you may still encounter these terms, and even today people still refer to some nations as the “third world.”

Another model separates countries into two groups: more developed and less developed. More-developed nations have higher wealth, such as Canada, Japan, and Australia. Less-developed nations have less wealth to distribute among higher populations, including many countries in central Africa, South America, and some island nations.

Yet another system of global classification defines countries based on the per capita gross domestic product (GDP), a country’s average national wealth per person. The GDP is calculated (usually annually) one of two ways: by totaling either the income of all citizens or the value of all goods and services produced in the country during the year. It also includes government spending. Because the GDP indicates a country’s productivity and performance, comparing GDP rates helps establish a country’s economic health in relation to other countries.

The figures also establish a country’s standard of living. According to this analysis, a GDP standard of a middle-income nation represents a global average. In low-income countries, most people are poor relative to people in other countries. Citizens have little access to amenities such as electricity, plumbing, and clean water. People in low-income countries are not guaranteed education, and many are illiterate. The life expectancy of citizens is lower than in high-income countries.

The big picture: calculating global stratification

A few organizations take on the job of comparing the wealth of nations. The Population Reference Bureau (PRB) is one of them. Besides a focus on population data, the PRB publishes an annual report that measures the relative economic well-being of all the world’s countries. It’s called the Gross National Income (GNI) and Purchasing Power Parity (PPP).

The GNI measures the current value of goods and services produced by a country. The PPP measures the relative power a country has to purchase those same goods and services. So, GNI refers to productive output and PPP refers to buying power. The total figure is divided by the number of residents living in a country to establish the average income of a resident of that country.

Because costs of goods and services vary from one country to the next, the GNI PPP converts figures into a relative international unit. Calculating GNI PPP figures helps researchers accurately compare countries’ standard of living. They allow the United Nations and Population Reference Bureau to compare and rank the wealth of all countries and consider international stratification issues (nationsonline.org).

Summary

Global stratification compares the wealth, economic stability, status, and power of countries as a whole. By comparing income and productivity between nations, researchers can better identify global inequalities.

Short answer

Why is it important to understand and be aware of global stratification? Make a list of specific issues that are related to global stratification. For inspiration, turn on a news channel or read the newspaper. Next, choose a topic from your list, and look at it more closely. Who is affected by this issue? How is the issue specifically related to global stratification?

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Compare a family that lives in a grass hut in Ethiopia to an American family living in a trailer home in the Unites States. Assuming both exist at or below the poverty levels established by their country, how are the families’ lifestyles and economic situations similar and how are they different?

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Further research

Nations Online refers to itself as “among other things, a more or less objective guide to the world, a statement for the peaceful, nonviolent coexistence of nations.” The website provides a variety of cultural, financial, historical, and ethnic information on countries and peoples throughout the world: (External Link) .

References

Millennium Project. 2006. “Expanding the financial envelope to achieve the Goals.” Millennium Project Official Website. Retrieved January 9, 2012 ( (External Link) ).

Nationsonline.org. “Countries by Gross National Income (GNI).” Retrieved January 9, 2012 ( (External Link) ).

PRB.org. “GNI PPP Per Capita (US$).” PRB 2011 World Population Data Sheet . 2011 Population Reference Bureau. Retrieved January 10, 2012 ( (External Link) ).

Rostow, Walt W. 1960. The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto . Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.

Landler, Mark, and David E. Sanger. 2009. “World Leaders Pledge $1.1 Trillion for Crisis.” New York Times , April 3. Retrieved January 9, 2012 ( (External Link) ).

Questions & Answers

This morning you are doing good
Swarray Reply
still sleeping
rameez
How did Emile Durkheim defined sociology
Larweh Reply
Durkhiem gv broadly three definitions of sociology respectively viz. Sociology is the science of collective representation (in div. of labour 1893), sociology is d science of social institutions and sociology is the science of social facts( in his rules of sociological methods 1895 )
rameez
what are some branch of sociology?
Kollie
sociology of health and medicine sociology of Education
DIY
Sociology is a braod subject of social science it has different sub fields i.e Sociology of Education, Sociology of Politics, Medical Sociology, Social Anthropology, Social Psychology, Criminology, Sociology of Law, Population Studies, Rural Sociology, Urban Sociology, Social Change, Biological Soci
Sadiq
Evolutionary Theory ?
Madiha Reply
theories that describe how culture and societies change over time.
manisha
evolutionary theories given by August comte and Herbert spencer ?
Madiha
comte describes 3 stages social evolution theory. there is drawin theory of evolution also.
manisha
comte hs talked abt three evolutionary stages theological, metaphysical & positive respectively thr societies, sciences, mind's or even individuals has passed as per him, whl as per Spencer societies has pssd frm military to industrial societies.
Rameez
thr which.... societies
Rameez
thankx all of u
Madiha
The first stage, the theological stage, illustrates a time prior to 1300 where all phenomena is explained by divine and supernatural forces or beings that are given concreteness through the symbolism of priestly castes.[10,6] The social and physical world is viewed as being produced by God. 
manisha
The second stage, the metaphysical stage, occurrs between 1300 and 1800, and is characterized by a belief that the divine powers illustrated in stage one become abstract forces
manisha
The last stage, the positivistic stage, occured from 1800 to the present and employs only empirical facts and scientific laws to explain the phenomena that the divine and abstract forces explained previously. 
manisha
Comte believed that groups, societies, sciences, individuals, and minds all go through these stages.[3] Each step one takes in these three stages is a step towards a more complete level of knowledge.
manisha
still alive.. 🙄 gonna late. erly to bed erly to early to rise makes man, healthy, wealthy n wise. Only Men ap yha b safe hai.
Rameez
reservation khub ml rhe hai.. aish kru.. Enjoy n estay blssd.!
Rameez
thankx both of u
Madiha
what do we means by sociology
Kollie
what the students of sociology do for the society?
Kollie
sociology in simpler terms is the subject which deals wd the systematic, analytic and scientific study of society.
rameez
welcome Madiha
rameez
rameez sir ap kal bol rahe the na UGC k notes k bare mai vo apko KU ki website pe b kuch mile ge ...
Madiha
achh...thank you so much Madiha.. at least ksi ne kal ki query ka reply krra. Allah blss! 😊
rameez
its ok ...ap notes b lasakhte hai ..kisi institute se..asani se mile ge ...
Madiha
institute se..?
rameez
I mn NET k coaching institute sociology me... h khe pe srinagar me
rameez
UGC k notes bol rahi hu ...
Madiha
ji Madiha.. UGC NET huta actually, in other words unv grants commission, NET ka, (national eligibility test ka) ka exam conduct krta h.
rameez
aur so UGC NET khlata h.
rameez
ahh. superficially bt um always serious how can I go, I think I shd start from Basics preferably ignou BA material.......aphi ne bola tha ns kal ...aphi ki commnt hai :p ....UGC ...under graduate course b hota hai na :p
Madiha
आप में से कौन मध्यप्रदेश की अस्सिस्टेंट प्रोफेसर की exam दे रहे है ? sociology subject से
virendra
ohh, yh btt h. Madiha..
rameez
ji huta h yu are rt Madiha.
rameez
bt bt Madiha ws talking abt ignou BA, and I feel ignou BA study material are far bttr then KU,.
rameez
is...
rameez
ok sir ...i was just trying 2 hlp u ...
Madiha
waise b ap ne complt kra. Kh chunne, you don't wanna give Madiha, No problem, it's ok!
rameez
ok Mam Madiha. Nice of you. . humbled n pleased. thanx alot.!
rameez
one can easily get ugc net of sociology on mrunal site. just type sociology mrunal notes. u will get complete notes. all the best for ugc net.
manisha
these are ignuo notes free download available on mrunal site.
manisha
ignou notes for ma n ba plus 12th ncert notes.
manisha
thanx mam Manisha definitely will search for mrunal.. Thanx alot.!
rameez
wow.! ol ignou notes n ncert also. .. dtz really good.
rameez
nice,thnxx much. God blss mam!
rameez
m happy to help you. my thanks is to mrunal who is providing notes.
manisha
I see, thanx, thank you All
rameez
hello sociologists
MANJI
hlo
Sajad
Hello
Rong
what is epistemology?
owolabi Reply
epistemology is the branch of philosophy . it is the study or science of knowledge
Madiha
epistemology is the branch of philosophy that study the theory of knowledge with its nature.
Floxy
what is kinship
Sukesh Reply
it can also be referred as relationship or closer relative of a person or things
Michael
bunch of relationship and relatives, these are based on blood relationship or marriage.
manisha
refer to relation ship i think
Musawir
a group of people related by either blood or marriage. ...kinship
vivek
right
Naqeeb
It is one of the basic social institutions . In simple words it is the bond of blood or marriage which binds people together in group
Madiha
kins are classified into 3 types ... primary secondary and tertiary kins primary are like husbNd -wife , father - son bla bla secondary like mothers brother , sisters husband bla bla tertiary like wife's brother's son ..bla bla
Madiha
nice, madiha 👍
Rameez
by the way um learning sociology at ignou Sopore, any recommendations for ugc net plz. you are welcome n thanx much! 😊
Rameez
Is a relationship between the members of the same family
Floxy
whom u r asking rameez ?
Madiha
oh um xcused mam, forgot to mention ua name. was asking you mam Madiha
Rameez
i m doing BA at srinagar ...my BA is going to complete after 2 months ..i m not an experienced prsn ...soo i cant suggest u anything 😛
Madiha
ohh 😊.. nice wish you best of luck!
Rameez
thankx
Madiha
I would suggest you... Study first all the sociological thoughts... get your concept clear...
sociological thght frm whr. thnx anonymous user. 😓😓😓
Rameez
when are you planning to write...
write wht? Um writing but none understand ma.... Do you mn Sir, abt to appear in Exam?
Rameez
now then go superficially...
ahh. superficially bt um always serious how can I go, I think I shd start from Basics preferably ignou BA material
Rameez
is ignou BA material available in pdf. Anybdy plz
Rameez
Ohh.. I hv high respects n regards for HIJAB. hatsoff.. the truth is sometimes I intentionally wish to break barriers and meet Soul//s otherhalf..ok nt this day let smwhr else or otherday.. InshaAllah.. . thanx anonymous, thanx everybody!! um learner xcused for rubbish Allah blss!
Rameez
can anyone tell me ...which subject is best for masters ... Sociology or psychology?
Madiha
sure sociology thn psychology
Rameez
bt I feel English is the best in terms of various parameters
Rameez
thankx for ur suggestions sir
Madiha
Kinship means blood relationship. Madiha has explained it well. For a meticulous reading I would suggest Kinship and Marriage: An Anthropological perspective by Robin Fox
APA
kinship is nt jus blood relatnshp, it includes affinal as well as putative or fictive relationships - the hallmark of primitive or anthropological studies,wch forms the base wdout which sociological studies are incomplete.. 😊
Rameez
Rameez... You do not have so much time... so you better see in general...
what is the post modernist view on society?
onno Reply
what is deviance
Karamat
the gap between institionalized means and culturally approved goals is called deviance.. the violation of norms ia called deviance. every criminal can be deviant but not all deviant can be crimanl
Mohsin
Truth is a matter of subjectivity. It varies from one person to another. There isn't anything like absolute truth for the post modernists
sagar
@onno lisa
sagar
what is reality
Miatta
means Actions or behaviors that violate formal and informal cultural norms such as laws and customs.
Stephanus
What is hypothesis?
Suti Reply
hypothesis is a process where by scientists makes their guess
Gideon
statement created by researchers to speculate the outcome of a reasearch or experiment.
manisha
It is a created statement that can predict the outcome of the reasearch
Stephanus
Have this app is not in hindi medium
mukesh Reply
yes true its not
manisha
define culture in terms of material and non-material aspects.
pervious Reply
culture is an art of living in one's own society by sharing the same values and norms. These sentiments are accentuated through & reflected in certain clothing styles, eating habits & totems of the members of the society
sagar
thanks dey. now how can you define it in terms of material and nonmaterial?
pervious
Material culture is the physical aspect of culture in the objects and architecture that surround people. It includes usage, consumption, creation, and trade of objects as well as the behaviors, norms, and rituals that the objects create or take part in.
sagar
non-material culture does not include any physical objects or artifacts. Examples of non-material culture include any ideas, beliefs, values, norms that may help shape society.
sagar
thanks Sagar
pervious
no problem dear
sagar
Sagar explain Herbert Spencer's theory on sociology
Clara
Social control is attributed to whom?
Moses
@clara - ***study.com/academy/lesson/herbert-spencer-theory-social-darwinism.html
sagar
@Moses - Ivan Nye
sagar
briefly describe the nature of siciology with example?
funny Reply
The nature of sociology is dynamic. It encompasses the administration, politics, economy, geography, religion, morality & psychology of various societies. It is a subject of perspectives, and therefore celebrates the art of looking at our society from different dimensions, thus making it fascinating
sagar
identity the relevance of family background to learner's education aspirations
pervious Reply
what do we call a blood relations
Adoubou Reply
family
pervious
disuss the idea of social differentation reintingration and adptation (durkheim weber parson smalser difine how these three postulate's can be a scaffolding of neonvolutionism (smith anthory D 1973
niruta Reply
how are the rights of weman greatly affecting production in all sectors e.g economic , political and social sector
luther Reply
bb
niruta
what is a neonvolutionism
niruta
Neoevolutionism is concerned with long-term, directional, evolutionary social change and with the regular patterns of development that may be seen in unrelated, widely separated culture
ede
identity the relevance of family background to learner's education aspirations
pervious
How can I download haralambus
danielle Reply
with an internet connection
sagar
haaaa....Right
RAJES
socialization and social interaction ism , how can we relate ?
Anil

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Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to sociology 2e. OpenStax CNX. Jan 20, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11762/1.6
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