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The social construction of the illness experience

The idea of the social construction of the illness experience is based on the concept of reality as a social construction. In other words, there is no objective reality; there are only our own perceptions of it. The social construction of the illness experience deals with such issues as the way some patients control the manner in which they reveal their diseases and the lifestyle adaptations patients develop to cope with their illnesses.

In terms of constructing the illness experience, culture and individual personality both play a significant role. For some people, a long-term illness can have the effect of making their world smaller, more defined by the illness than anything else. For others, illness can be a chance for discovery, for re-imaging a new self (Conrad and Barker 2007). Culture plays a huge role in how an individual experiences illness. Widespread diseases like AIDS or breast cancer have specific cultural markers that have changed over the years and that govern how individuals—and society—view them.

Today, many institutions of wellness acknowledge the degree to which individual perceptions shape the nature of health and illness. Regarding physical activity, for instance, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommends that individuals use a standard level of exertion to assess their physical activity. This Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) gives a more complete view of an individual’s actual exertion level, since heartrate or pulse measurements may be affected by medication or other issues (Centers for Disease Control 2011a). Similarly, many medical professionals use a comparable scale for perceived pain to help determine pain management strategies.

A chart of numerical pain levels ranging from 0 to 10 is shown here.
The Mosby pain rating scale helps health care providers assess an individual’s level of pain. What might a symbolic interactionist observe about this method? (Photo courtesy of wrestlingentropy/flickr)

The social construction of medical knowledge

Conrad and Barker show how medical knowledge is socially constructed; that is, it can both reflect and reproduce inequalities in gender, class, race, and ethnicity. Conrad and Barker (2011) use the example of the social construction of women’s health and how medical knowledge has changed significantly in the course of a few generations. For instance, in the early nineteenth century, pregnant women were discouraged from driving or dancing for fear of harming the unborn child, much as they are discouraged, with more valid reason, from smoking or drinking alcohol today.

Has breast cancer awareness gone too far?

Pink ribbon lollipops are shown here.
Pink ribbons are a ubiquitous reminder of breast cancer. But do pink ribbon chocolates do anything to eradicate the disease? (Photo courtesy of wishuponacupcake/Wikimedia Commons)

Every October, the world turns pink. Football and baseball players wear pink accessories. Skyscrapers and large public buildings are lit with pink lights at night. Shoppers can choose from a huge array of pink products. In 2014, people wanting to support the fight against breast cancer could purchase any of the following pink products: KitchenAid mixers, Master Lock padlocks and bike chains, Wilson tennis rackets, Fiat cars, and Smith&Wesson handguns. You read that correctly. The goal of all these pink products is to raise awareness and money for breast cancer. However, the relentless creep of pink has many people wondering if the pink marketing juggernaut has gone too far.

Pink has been associated with breast cancer since 1991, when the Susan G. Komen Foundation handed out pink ribbons at its 1991 Race for the Cure event. Since then, the pink ribbon has appeared on countless products, and then by extension, the color pink has come to represent support for a cure of the disease. No one can argue about the Susan G. Komen Foundation’s mission—to find a cure for breast cancer—or the fact that the group has raised millions of dollars for research and care. However, some people question if, or how much, all these products really help in the fight against breast cancer (Begos 2011).

The advocacy group Breast Cancer Action (BCA) position themselves as watchdogs of other agencies fighting breast cancer. They accept no funding from entities, like those in the pharmaceutical industry, with potential profit connections to this health industry. They’ve developed a trademarked “Think Before You Pink” campaign to provoke consumer questioning of the end contributions made to breast cancer by companies hawking pink wares. They do not advise against “pink” purchases; they just want consumers to be informed about how much money is involved, where it comes from, and where it will go. For instance, what percentage of each purchase goes to breast cancer causes? BCA does not judge how much is enough, but it informs customers and then encourages them to consider whether they feel the amount is enough (Think Before You Pink 2012).

BCA also suggests that consumers make sure that the product they are buying does not actually contribute to breast cancer, a phenomenon they call “pinkwashing.” This issue made national headlines in 2010, when the Susan G. Komen Foundation partnered with Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) on a promotion called “Buckets for the Cure.” For every bucket of grilled or regular fried chicken, KFC would donate fifty cents to the Komen Foundation, with the goal of reaching 8 million dollars: the largest single donation received by the foundation. However, some critics saw the partnership as an unholy alliance. Higher body fat and eating fatty foods has been linked to increased cancer risks, and detractors, including BCA, called the Komen Foundation out on this apparent contradiction of goals. Komen’s response was that the program did a great deal to raise awareness in low-income communities, where Komen previously had little outreach (Hutchison 2010).

What do you think? Are fundraising and awareness important enough to trump issues of health? What other examples of “pinkwashing” can you think of?


Medical sociology is the systematic study of how humans manage issues of health and illness, disease and disorders, and healthcare for both the sick and the healthy. The social construction of health explains how society shapes and is shaped by medical ideas.

Short answer

Pick a common illness and describe which parts of it are medically constructed, and which parts are socially constructed.

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What diseases are the most stigmatized? Which are the least? Is this different in different cultures or social classes?

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Further research

Spend some time on the two web sites below. How do they present differing views of the vaccination controversy? Freedom of Choice is Not Free: Vaccination News: (External Link) and Shot by Shot: Stories of Vaccine-Preventable Illnesses: (External Link)


Begos, Kevin. 2011. “Pinkwashing For Breast Cancer Awareness Questioned.” Retrieved December 16, 2011 ( (External Link) ).

Centers for Disease Control. 2011a. “Perceived Exertion (Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale).” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved December 12, 2011 ( (External Link) ).

Conrad, Peter, and Kristin Barker. 2010. “The Social Construction of Illness: Key Insights and Policy Implications.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 51:67–79.

Goffman, Erving. 1963. Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity . London: Penguin.

Hutchison, Courtney. 2010. “Fried Chicken for the Cure?” ABC News Medical Unit. Retrieved December 16, 2011 ( (External Link) ).

Sartorius, Norman. 2007. “Stigmatized Illness and Health Care.” The Croatian Medical Journal 48(3):396–397. Retrieved December 12, 2011 ( (External Link) ).

Think Before You Pink. 2012. “Before You Buy Pink.” Retrieved December 16, 2011 ( (External Link) ).

“Vaccines and Immunizations.” 2011. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved December 16, 2011 ( (External Link) ).

World Health Organization. .n.d. “Definition of Health.” Retrieved December 12, 2011 ( (External Link) ).

World Health Organization: “Health Promotion Glossary Update.” Retrieved December 12, 2011 ( (External Link) ).

Questions & Answers

hi is there a question?
Hirsi Reply
what was the main aim of Emile Durkheim in his study of society
help with research topics in sociology
Ishaka Reply
does anyone know what alienation under karl marx theory?
manisha Reply
In essence it means that a human becomes a sort of robot for big organization
a situation where he gets separated from what he did
As a worker/labour for capatilist society, he starts to forget his basic human instincts because he does not have time to think freely and aa a result he's not autonomous anymore
Got it?
post Industrial revolution , men started to work only for a company , they are now not producing a finished product like they used to do , so now they cant be proud of what they did , basically they cant differentiate or pick their work in the finished product thus alienated from work
correct me If I am wrong
yes got it thank you.
marx wanted a society where a man can work in the morning and have recreation in the evening also bring out his creativity
and does not end up in machine like or routine line production.
symbolic interaction
Carolyn Reply
What are the importance of studein sociology
social verstehenian' s
Umar Reply
what means of social verstehenian' s
what is population dynamic
Verstehenian is a German term that simply means understand or perceive on a phenomenal
where is born Carl max?
Safi Reply
plz tell me about karl max
what do you now about Karl max
classic sociologist
A man against capitalism.
what about his work on religion
secularism and socialism are are aposit the capitalism
can we discusses here about social statistics
jhamandas Reply
what is difference between acculturation and assimilation
It is class conflict theory
The economic exploitation and inhuman working conditions lead to increasing alienation of man
what is question in research
As a nursing proffessional,why is it important to study sociology?
AnnaRosa Reply
Oh, forgive my manners guys..greetings to everyone, im a student nurse in my second year doing introduction to sociology..hoping you guys can help perhaps?
It's necessary to hv a good knowledge regarding the social aspect of the day to day life. Man is gregarious in nature. therefore sufficient knowledge regarding the society and social relationships is must.
The scope of sociology as a mother social science is increasing day by day , therefore the need is felt in many sectors/fields to teach it as one subject to introduction to beware the students of the basic scientific knowhow of society they are living in.
i support that idea because the learning of society is very crucial
thank you guys..
population dynamics some information please
what is education ?
Marriage And Kingship
Mass Communication
in nursing profession one needs to commumnicate with others and by studying sociology you will become social by nature as it drags one to realise social issues. well i was not know in nursuing also ppl read sociology.
we know some facts in our mind. but there is need to be something to click those in our mind. sociology will make you aware about the so called society which pressure one to be another.
according akinsola..how did he defined sociology
derric Reply
Please keep in mind that it's not allowed to promote any social groups (whatsapp, facebook, etc...) or exchange phone numbers or email addresses on our platform.
QuizOver Reply
guys can anyone please help me with non material components of culture.....how the components are reflected and expressed in culture?
Thoriso Reply
Thoriso Stamier Components of non material culture are expressed in terms of actions. we do it, we believe in, we speak, we have ideas, we express in language form , values in the society, symbols related to meanings, and so on...
worship, morals, or religion as a whole is also non material culture. we understand symbols. we have institutions for several basic needs and purposes. etc
thank u jhamandas. bro its seven years I hv had may M.A in Sociology. Now bcoz of little time for to study, I have forgotten many things. Now want to revise the course but.... anyway this foram is a rich source. discussion makes the way better.
how to explain the sampling size?
Akak Reply
Akak Lego A sample should be at least 30% of the total population. "How to explain it" is a question related to the type of sample one takes in his/her research.
What is different between Acculturation and Assimilation?
jhamandas Reply
Who coined term physical sociology ?
jhamandas Reply
Karl Marx
Do you mean term physical sociology coined by Karl Marx?

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