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Photo of a crowded Tahirir Square in Cairo, Egypt where many people in the crowd are waiving Egyptian flags in the air
In 2011, thousands of Egyptian citizens demonstrated in the streets and protested political repression by Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak (Photo courtesy of Jonathan Rashad/flickr)

Hosni Mubarak had been the President of Egypt for nearly thirty years when massive public uprisings caused him to step down in 2011. Gaining the presidency in 1981 when President Anwar Sadat was assassinated, Mubarak had maintained his regime through a series of “monopoly” elections in which he was the only candidate. Popular unrest first drew significant notice in 2004, and by early 2011 thousands of Egyptians had begun protesting political oppression through demonstrations in the streets of several Egyptian cities, including the capital city of Cairo. There was sporadic violence between demonstrators and the military, but eventually Mubarak resigned and left the country. Within a year, a free, multicandidate election was held in Egypt.

The "Arab Spring" refers to a series of uprisings in various countries throughout the Middle East, including Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Syria, Tunisia, Qatar, and Yemen. The extent of protest has varied widely among these countries, as have the outcomes, but all were based on popular uprisings of the people, who were dissatisfied with their respective government leaders but were unable to create change by less extreme methods. In countries such as Tunisia and Egypt, revolution did involve some violence, but relatively less than in other Middle Eastern countries. In Libya, the repressive regime of Muammar Gaddafi was brought to an end after forty-two years. The number of causalities reported differs depending on the source; the exact number is still unknown, but it is estimated to be in the thousands.

References

The National. 2011. “The Arab Spring Country by County” The National , June 17. Retrieved October 1, 2014 ( (External Link) )

World Health Organization. 2012. “Libya Crisis; August 2011 Update” Retrieved October 1, 2014 ( (External Link) )

Questions & Answers

What are the importance of studein sociology
OLAOYE Reply
social verstehenian' s
Umar Reply
what means of social verstehenian' s
Hirsi
what is population dynamic
Bilal
Verstehenian is a German term that simply means understand or perceive on a phenomenal
Ibrahim
where is born Carl max?
Safi Reply
Germany
Abdur
plz tell me about karl max
Ramesh
what do you now about Karl max
Tilahun
classic sociologist
Gözde
A man against capitalism.
favert
what about his work on religion
Tilahun
secularism and socialism are are aposit the capitalism
Ghulammurtaza
can we discusses here about social statistics
jhamandas Reply
what is difference between acculturation and assimilation
jhamandas
As a nursing proffessional,why is it important to study sociology?
AnnaRosa Reply
Oh, forgive my manners guys..greetings to everyone, im a student nurse in my second year doing introduction to sociology..hoping you guys can help perhaps?
AnnaRosa
It's necessary to hv a good knowledge regarding the social aspect of the day to day life. Man is gregarious in nature. therefore sufficient knowledge regarding the society and social relationships is must.
saifuddin
The scope of sociology as a mother social science is increasing day by day , therefore the need is felt in many sectors/fields to teach it as one subject to introduction to beware the students of the basic scientific knowhow of society they are living in.
saifuddin
i support that idea because the learning of society is very crucial
Hirsi
thank you guys..
AnnaRosa
population dynamics some information please
Bilal
what is education ?
Kifayat
according akinsola..how did he defined sociology
derric Reply
?
Kifayat
Please keep in mind that it's not allowed to promote any social groups (whatsapp, facebook, etc...) or exchange phone numbers or email addresses on our platform.
QuizOver Reply
guys can anyone please help me with non material components of culture.....how the components are reflected and expressed in culture?
Thoriso Reply
Thoriso Stamier Components of non material culture are expressed in terms of actions. we do it, we believe in, we speak, we have ideas, we express in language form , values in the society, symbols related to meanings, and so on...
saifuddin
worship, morals, or religion as a whole is also non material culture. we understand symbols. we have institutions for several basic needs and purposes. etc
saifuddin
thank u jhamandas. bro its seven years I hv had may M.A in Sociology. Now bcoz of little time for to study, I have forgotten many things. Now want to revise the course but.... anyway this foram is a rich source. discussion makes the way better.
saifuddin
how to explain the sampling size?
Akak Reply
Akak Lego A sample should be at least 30% of the total population. "How to explain it" is a question related to the type of sample one takes in his/her research.
saifuddin
What is different between Acculturation and Assimilation?
jhamandas Reply
Who coined term physical sociology ?
jhamandas Reply
Karl Marx
Meitei
Do you mean term physical sociology coined by Karl Marx?
jhamandas
who is father of Sociology I we say August Comtee Then What about Ibn khildon
jhamandas Reply
Who is father of Sociology ?If We say August Comtee then what about Ibn Khildon
jhamandas
For the substantial of social life, we can refer to Ibnu Khaldun. But, the man who popular term of "sociology" it's from Auguste Comte.
Budiman
Auguste Comte for the first time coined the word Sociology and predicted that in future there will be the priests who will be sociologists and there will be peaceful life through their teachings. So for, he is considered as the founder of modern sociology. Another reason is that he kept sociology on
saifuddin
in contrast Allama Ibne khaldoon who born in 1332 was a very strong writer and historian. he wrote muqaddima. prolegmena. and some other books. In his book (Imraniat or ilm ul imran) he stated that no person can have a good knowledge about society except knowing prolegmena. The science of society.
saifuddin
so ibne khaldoon was the first man to brought out sociological studies but the overall works of khaldoon were not of sociology... August Comte fully worked on the field and fully discussed the field , that is why he stayed as the founding father.
saifuddin
may be there are some other valuable answers to this question, u share and we will learn. thank u if we find any mistake, will be cleared in discussion.
saifuddin
saifuddin... how r u?
Kifayat
Procration
Ibrahim
Pls importance of sociology
OLAOYE
Dear why comments are showing
jhamandas Reply
to know ideas and thinking of others about your post
Mariam
wow nice conversation refreshing my mind thanks
Helario
thanks dear in such a nice way made me understood
jhamandas
ok thank
Hirsi
what are the 5 non-material components of culture?
Thoriso Reply
Norms values moories folkways language
Fazli
can you please give practical examples of how each of these components are reflected and expressed in culture
Thoriso
Give respect to Elders in culture is norms
Fazli
what is cultural lag ? if anyone has its answer please send to me.
Rubin's Reply
what is cultural insulation to individual and society
Rubin's
The gape between material and non material culture, for example with innovation a new thing is adopted easily as a material object but it will take time to accept it as a part of life to be valude and normal.
Sadiq
thanks
Rubin's
what are the 5 non-material components of culture?
Thoriso
what is the procedure to follow this
Fazli

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Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to sociology 2e. OpenStax CNX. Jan 20, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11762/1.6
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