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Photo of a crowded Tahirir Square in Cairo, Egypt where many people in the crowd are waiving Egyptian flags in the air
In 2011, thousands of Egyptian citizens demonstrated in the streets and protested political repression by Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak (Photo courtesy of Jonathan Rashad/flickr)

Hosni Mubarak had been the President of Egypt for nearly thirty years when massive public uprisings caused him to step down in 2011. Gaining the presidency in 1981 when President Anwar Sadat was assassinated, Mubarak had maintained his regime through a series of “monopoly” elections in which he was the only candidate. Popular unrest first drew significant notice in 2004, and by early 2011 thousands of Egyptians had begun protesting political oppression through demonstrations in the streets of several Egyptian cities, including the capital city of Cairo. There was sporadic violence between demonstrators and the military, but eventually Mubarak resigned and left the country. Within a year, a free, multicandidate election was held in Egypt.

The "Arab Spring" refers to a series of uprisings in various countries throughout the Middle East, including Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Syria, Tunisia, Qatar, and Yemen. The extent of protest has varied widely among these countries, as have the outcomes, but all were based on popular uprisings of the people, who were dissatisfied with their respective government leaders but were unable to create change by less extreme methods. In countries such as Tunisia and Egypt, revolution did involve some violence, but relatively less than in other Middle Eastern countries. In Libya, the repressive regime of Muammar Gaddafi was brought to an end after forty-two years. The number of causalities reported differs depending on the source; the exact number is still unknown, but it is estimated to be in the thousands.

References

The National. 2011. “The Arab Spring Country by County” The National , June 17. Retrieved October 1, 2014 ( (External Link) )

World Health Organization. 2012. “Libya Crisis; August 2011 Update” Retrieved October 1, 2014 ( (External Link) )

Questions & Answers

Class and class structure
priyanka Reply
G S Gurye
Suraj
society is jenus headed is an animal and has two head discuss this in the lite of culture
Hajja Reply
i need the answer urgent
Hajja
where are you from
babar
i guess there is something missing in the question.. kindly write it again
hasan
What causes social stratification
Alexander
Assalamu alaikum Happy independence day to pakistani friends. Love from india..
manisha
Waalaikumussalam
Abdur
how social reseach is an approach to confirm the observations and pattern of behaviours prevailing in the society
sitta Reply
any body with answer pleaz
sitta
what is meant by human ecology?
Akak Reply
can any one define the meaning of environmental shift
Akak
what is functional theory?
Jane Reply
hi.. functional theory by word its mean how society structure and each units functions together to contribute to while its also called structural functionalism.
manisha
how each units contribute to whole*
manisha
herbert spencer seen society as body. just like each organ of body worked together to keep entire system functioning n in the same way each part or unit or structure work together to keep the entire society functioning n regulated.
manisha
what is meant by manifest function of theory
Akak
manifest functions r results of social process which can be guessed or anticipated. like college education preparing for career
manisha
what do you means by society
Mukesh Reply
given in the app itself. a group.of ppl who live in defined geographic area who interact with one another who share a common culture.
manisha
the group of people whose live togater they practice one culture one language and interaction with each other is called society.
Nawab
Please explain Socio-economic status?
Leonard Reply
Is the Government a gang?
Leonard
what is sociology ?
Punyashlok Reply
Sociology is the subject that study the human character
Akak
Can any one explain the mores in sociology in brief
Akak
who is august comte
David
August Comte is father's of social
Abhishek
August comte was a french sociologist...
abdul
Who is the second father of sociology?
garh
emile durkhime ,one of his great successor may be called the 2nd father of sociology.......
Vignesh
Herbert Spencer
Jyoti
the third founder emile durkhiem used scientific method in in sociology
Ismail
sociology is the science of society by the father of sociology.
Joshua
Almost not accurate
abdul
who is mixweber
Baba
given in app itself sociology is study of groups n group interactions, societies n social.interaction
manisha
who is mixweber
Baba
German sociologist
Ismail
mixweber is a German sociologist also 3rd father of sociology.
Nawab
Who are the founding fathers of sociology and their contributions?
Ortema Reply
August Comte
Abhishek
Should Amerikkka have a livable minimum wage?
Leonard Reply
Is the Gov't a gang? A gang of profiteers?
Leonard
Who are the founding fathers of sociology and their contributions please?
Ortema
comte
Punyashlok
August Comte...
Nawab
why sociology become more popular than anthropology
Abhishek Reply
Sociology is present day...
Leonard
so
Abhishek
Anthropology deals with prehistoric cultures that no longer exist. Thus Sociology is more relevant because it deals with our current, existing civilizations. When studying what actually exists you can derive information much more accurately. Sociologies information is highly accurate.
Leonard
^ Sociology's
Leonard
because the scope of sociology is very wide from anthropology.
Nawab
what is ownership and control of the mass media
Gift Reply
five stages of group formation?
Bernard Reply
two or more than two people process of interaction influence with each other have a common goal
Ismail
guys please help me on ownership and control of the mass media
Gift
What do you know about W.E.B Du Bois?
Leonard Reply
what do you means by sociology
Mukesh Reply
who is the father of sociology
Mukesh
agust comte
Arzun
o thanks you
Mukesh
what is the definition of sociology?
Victoria
ibn khaldum
shehu
sociology is the study of human and their social environment.
shehu
Sociology is the study of society and its individuals...
abdul
Who has presented the theory of looking glass?
abdul
CH cooley
Ismail
sociology is study of groups and group interaction in a societies and social interaction from small and personal groups to a very large group..
Favour
Sociology- Socio = Social. Social-ology.
Leonard
it is study of group it's functions and structure of groups
Ismail
socialogy is the study of a group's belief,values and functions
Bernard
why we stody sociology...
Punyashlok
because sociology is the youngest branch of science which study society, group, belief, values, norm,mores,social interaction so the study of sociology is very needy.
Nawab

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Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to sociology 2e. OpenStax CNX. Jan 20, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11762/1.6
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