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In Sweden, for instance, stay-at-home fathers are an accepted part of the social landscape. A government policy provides subsidized time off work—480 days for families with newborns—with the option of the paid leave being shared between mothers and fathers. As one stay-at-home dad says, being home to take care of his baby son “is a real fatherly thing to do. I think that’s very masculine” (Associated Press 2011). Close to 90 percent of Swedish fathers use their paternity leave (about 340,000 dads); on average they take seven weeks per birth (The Economist, 2014). How do U.S. policies—and our society’s expected gender roles—compare? How will Swedish children raised this way be socialized to parental gender norms? How might that be different from parental gender norms in the United States?

A man and a baby.
The socialized roles of dads (and moms) vary by society. (Photo courtesy of Nate Grigg/flickr)

Peer groups

A peer group    is made up of people who are similar in age and social status and who share interests. Peer group socialization begins in the earliest years, such as when kids on a playground teach younger children the norms about taking turns, the rules of a game, or how to shoot a basket. As children grow into teenagers, this process continues. Peer groups are important to adolescents in a new way, as they begin to develop an identity separate from their parents and exert independence. Additionally, peer groups provide their own opportunities for socialization since kids usually engage in different types of activities with their peers than they do with their families. Peer groups provide adolescents’ first major socialization experience outside the realm of their families. Interestingly, studies have shown that although friendships rank high in adolescents’ priorities, this is balanced by parental influence.

Institutional agents

The social institutions of our culture also inform our socialization. Formal institutions—like schools, workplaces, and the government—teach people how to behave in and navigate these systems. Other institutions, like the media, contribute to socialization by inundating us with messages about norms and expectations.

School

Most U.S. children spend about seven hours a day, 180 days a year, in school, which makes it hard to deny the importance school has on their socialization (U.S. Department of Education 2004). Students are not in school only to study math, reading, science, and other subjects—the manifest function of this system. Schools also serve a latent function in society by socializing children into behaviors like practicing teamwork, following a schedule, and using textbooks.

A female teacher is shown sitting in a chair and reading a picture book to a group of children sitting in front of her on the floor.
These kindergarteners aren’t just learning to read and write; they are being socialized to norms like keeping their hands to themselves, standing in line, and reciting the Pledge of Allegiance. (Photo courtesy of Bonner Springs Library/flickr)

School and classroom rituals, led by teachers serving as role models and leaders, regularly reinforce what society expects from children. Sociologists describe this aspect of schools as the hidden curriculum    , the informal teaching done by schools.

Questions & Answers

what is social process?
Tariq Reply
what is Social statistics?
Kenyion Reply
what's social process?
Tariq
what are the approaches in sociology of education
kevolution Reply
what is social medicine plz explain this with examples..
SWS
what sociology theory
Evalife Reply
sociology means what?
sm Reply
means the science that use the empirical method and critical analysis to develop about human social stucture and activities
Musa
social scirnce is based on observable entites
Ilayda
the scientific study of human behaviors and society
asim
what is archiology
Benson
understanding human behaviour practicallly . sociology is ghe scientific nd emperical study of society e.g if we want to study of any individual wo can observe him r her through participatte obervation r nonobservation .wo can study individual's behaviour thriugh interview,questionere etc
musharaf
society makes people humans.Discuss
Sarudzayi
u can take help from google to search there 'research methodology'
musharaf
r u kidddding i dont think soooo
musharaf
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Tohid Reply
thank uh sir
musharaf
You are always welcome dude
Mubarak
🤗🤗
musharaf
plz. can any one explain me if I completed sociology which department I.will work for the government ?
Hasan
sociology is not all about to work for govt itz social work ...help the society to solve the problm
musharaf
i also in sociology dept
Munir
well my question is how can I get job if my country not like western countries and. I. finished this field
Hasan
plz unswer my question
Hasan
Are you studying just to get Job?
Mubarak
No I don't think so. But a the and all of us have to earn money to pay your living place etc.
Jannik
Exactly, but you have to understand one thing knowledge is power and whenever you have power you have money. Think as a Social Thinker
Mubarak
mubark sr r uh agreee with facult's ideology😁😁😁😁
musharaf
knowlge z piwer
musharaf
yep knowledge is power but when u r studing you first target is to get knowledge than when you finished u have to look job than support society in need and make problem solver
Hasan
Thx Hasan Muuse and Mubarak Saidu. Do you study sociology? And in which country?
Jannik
jannik no
Hasan
But you are interested in this topic :D
Jannik
yes I like it
Hasan
yes I like to study
Hasan
Nice :D
Jannik
ok thnks
Hasan
I love to study to very interesting facts im learning
Kayleigh
what is conflict
Shahzaib
mubark sr here shows that this email z not valid
musharaf
what is class struggle theory?
shahnam Reply
class struggle is all about the conflict between two sections of society, one is having the hold on resources plus all the capital outcomes of it(called bourgeois) whereas the other section is bound and compelled to serve the industries as a labourers or workers(called proletariats).
Lokesh
its a theory given by karl marx about bourgeois nd proletraits or have's nd havenot's respectively
musharaf
thanks
shahnam
sure ! welcome.
Lokesh
hii
Lalita
hi
shahnam
hlo
Zahid
Class struggle is all about Materialism in human society. The scarcity of it let people struggle. The have and the have not, as Marx said the bourgeois and Proletariat
Mubarak
What is cultural Shock, and cultural relativism
Mubarak
ok
eddie
mubark sir plz tell me about cultural shock
musharaf
Cultural shock is conditions of disorientation affecting someone who is suddenly exposed to an unfamiliar culture or way of life or set of attitude.
Mubarak
thank uh sir
musharaf
An example of cultural shock is, here in Nigeria there is a different cultures between southerners and northerners. So when a northerners visit South and saw southerner urinate while standing he feel abruptly and shock, because he is not familiar with this.
Mubarak
okh tysm
musharaf
Musharaf can you please tell me ur area of interest in sociology?
Mubarak
anyone have idea about contribution of classical theory of (karl marx,durkhiem,weber)on environmental sociology?
jumpe
im the girl im n intrested in gender ....feminism....i love redical feminist
musharaf
im also intrested in rural socoilogy
musharaf
because there r many problms in day to day life about about rural society nd gender
musharaf
Wao! Very well. I'm Industrial Sociologist
Mubarak
gooood
musharaf
I'm also a Functionalist and symbolic interaction
Mubarak
nyc
musharaf
wt about ur studies
musharaf
Because you knw Nigeria is a developing country so it's lack social analysts regarding to industrial planners. So that's why
Mubarak
I'm nw undergo my Masters degree in industrial sociology @University of Nigerian
Mubarak
nice thanks
manisha
what is meant by pattern variable
Akak
Your studies?
Mubarak
I don't study. I'm in Highschool in Germany :D
Jannik
Wao! Very Interesting
Mubarak
hello
Tohid
akak lego are u galo?
jumpe
sir i wish all ur dreams come true
musharaf
Hi Tohid
Mubarak
What have come today for
Mubarak
im doing master's degree in sociology from Jammu university
musharaf
Thank you so much Musharaf for ur prayer
Mubarak
Adi
Akak
👍
Tohid
Manisha u can
Akak
Is doing master in sociology a good opportunity to find later a good job where you like to go?
Jannik
akak sir pattern variable are 5 dichotomies dev. by tallcott parson to draw out the contrasting value to which individuals orient themselves in social interaction
musharaf
Pattern variable is a concept develop by Talcott person is trying to explain how social action
Mubarak
Good day guys
Mubarak
What is the main difference between census and survey?
Mustafa Reply
explain major contributions of Charles Wright Mills and Augusto Comte to the discipline of sociology
lugumba Reply
importance of sociology in logic if some one knows about plz help
Saqib
what are importance of studying sociology
Neema Reply
1 sociology detects and Solve Social Problems 2Sociology Helps in Planning and Development 3. Sociology makes a scientific study of Sociology 4 studies role of the institutions in the development of the individuals. 5 Helps in Preservation and Growth of Culture
manisha
6.sociology has made broaden the outlook of man. 7 Sociology is of great importance in the solution of international problems. 
manisha
what are feature of social institution
Muhid
eplayn philosopher of sociology
Mujahid Reply
explain philosopher of sociology
Mujahid
me
Ashebir
what is the difference between asocialist group on all definitions?
Koko Reply
what is the value of sociology
Banao Reply
What are the patterns of social interaction with regard to gender, religion and education
Norman Reply
define functionalist perspective
Jalil
what is cultural
nusrat Reply
culture is the way of life of a particular group of people
Philemon
culture is the backbone of society.
shahnam
culture consists of the beliefs' behaviour' objects' and other characteristics common to the members of particular group of society.
Zahid
culture is our way of life, customs ,traditions ,norms nd behavoiur
musharaf

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Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to sociology 2e. OpenStax CNX. Jan 20, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11762/1.6
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