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Statistics such as infant mortality rates and life expectancy vary greatly by country of origin. (Central Intelligence Agency 2011)
Country Infant Mortality Rate Life Expectancy
Norway 2.48 deaths per 1000 live births 81 years
The United States 6.17 deaths per 1000 live births 79 years
North Korea 24.50 deaths per 1000 live births 70 years
Afghanistan 117.3 deaths per 1000 live births 50 years

Most of us are accustomed to thinking of global stratification as economic inequality. For example, we can compare the United States’ average worker’s wage to America’s average wage. Social inequality, however, is just as harmful as economic discrepancies. Prejudice and discrimination—whether against a certain race, ethnicity, religion, or the like—can create and aggravate conditions of economic equality, both within and between nations. Think about the inequity that existed for decades within the nation of South Africa. Apartheid, one of the most extreme cases of institutionalized and legal racism, created a social inequality that earned it the world’s condemnation.

Gender inequity is another global concern. Consider the controversy surrounding female genital mutilation. Nations that practice this female circumcision procedure defend it as a longstanding cultural tradition in certain tribes and argue that the West shouldn’t interfere. Western nations, however, decry the practice and are working to stop it.

Inequalities based on sexual orientation and gender identity exist around the globe. According to Amnesty International, a number of crimes are committed against individuals who do not conform to traditional gender roles or sexual orientations (however those are culturally defined). From culturally sanctioned rape to state-sanctioned executions, the abuses are serious. These legalized and culturally accepted forms of prejudice and discrimination exist everywhere—from the United States to Somalia to Tibet—restricting the freedom of individuals and often putting their lives at risk (Amnesty International 2012).

Global classification

A major concern when discussing global inequality is how to avoid an ethnocentric bias implying that less-developed nations want to be like those who’ve attained post-industrial global power. Terms such as developing (nonindustrialized) and developed (industrialized) imply that unindustrialized countries are somehow inferior, and must improve to participate successfully in the global economy, a label indicating that all aspects of the economy cross national borders. We must take care how we delineate different countries. Over time, terminology has shifted to make way for a more inclusive view of the world.

Cold war terminology

Cold War terminology was developed during the Cold War era (1945–1980). Familiar and still used by many, it classifies countries into first world, second world, and third world nations based on their respective economic development and standards of living. When this nomenclature was developed, capitalistic democracies such as the United States and Japan were considered part of the first world    . The poorest, most undeveloped countries were referred to as the third world    and included most of sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, and Asia. The second world    was the in-between category: nations not as limited in development as the third world, but not as well off as the first world, having moderate economies and standard of living, such as China or Cuba. Later, sociologist Manual Castells (1998) added the term fourth world    to refer to stigmatized minority groups that were denied a political voice all over the globe (indigenous minority populations, prisoners, and the homeless, for example).

Questions & Answers

why do we study sociology
Steven Reply
In many ways sociology is the study of human patterns of behavior. It also allows us to see the strange in the familiar.
Kimmy
who is the founder of sociology?
Prince Reply
aguste comte
Steven
.
Steven
Can you explain "the looking-Glass self" by Charles Horton Cooley AND "the generalized other" by George Hebert Mead ?
Tommy Reply
Cooley´s concept of the looking glass self, states that a person's self grows out of a person´s social interactions with others. Mead's 'generalized other' becomes relevant when a person begins to evaluate himself from the point of view from the wider society.
Kimmy
whom we can call a social scientist or sociologist? A sociology graduate or a social work graduate
Arvind Reply
social scientist is not all about our degrees
musharaf
that is what you say, but I believe you
Powell
I didn't understood your reply.
Arvind
whose?
musharaf
actually what I believe, is that sociology deals with the creating theories methodologies and analysis. whereas social work deals with actual ground level implementation of the these theories, methodologies to create impact at actual ground level
Arvind
powel's
Arvind
we cant consider sociology graduate as social scientist. master of sociology or scholar is comsidered aa.....
musharaf
what is social mobility and its types
Izaz
@Izaz social mobility is the movement of individuals from one social class to another. The types are upward,horizontal, intergenerational, intragenerational,structural mobility.
Kimmy
Can one be a "professional " Sociologist without a degree Certificate?
Powell Reply
Yes please
Oduro
yeah
musharaf
Okay I am a dropout
Powell
in my finals
Powell
so if I continue here do I have a chance out there? I love the simplicity with which topics are explained and am greatful for finding my self here
Powell
what Alex Inkeles said in his book ,"what is sociology" ?
Madiha Reply
The great contemplators right from Comte to Behredeit had been the followers of this approach. As Alex inkles said; Sociology is the study of systems of social action & of their inter-relations. As Young, Raymond says, it is the scientific study of social aspects of human life.
Wasem
Topics: The subject matter of sociology -- The sociological perspective -- Models of society in sociological analysis -- Conceptions of man in sociological analysis -- Basic elements of social life -- Fundamental social processes -- Models of inquiry in sociology -- Sociology as a profession
PUBG
Which topic u want to discuss :)
PUBG
Dear give a brief introduction about Sociology as a profession
Wasem
subject matter of sociology
Madiha
He is busy in play PUBG. Carry on
Wasem
He is busy in playing PUBG. Carry on
Wasem
What do u mean wasem
PUBG
Something is wrong with this. I replied so many times but there is not a single reply from me :/
PUBG
What is contemporary family
DAMBA
By what? #Pubg
Wasem
by sociology of the family
DAMBA
Dear PUBG, if you're really meant to serve here, then do your duty as soon as possible
Wasem
There is a problem. Its showing me access denied. So sorry
PUBG
Something inappropriate. I don't know why. I am trying to reply and same dialogue box is appearing again and again
PUBG
Madiha sociology has its own subject matter. Some critics were that sociology has been parcelled out from other social sciences but now sociology is called mother of all social sciences.
PUBG
Woah published. I typed 10 times
PUBG
I tried to explain in simple n short way. If u want detailed. Right now i am not able to publish a full text and i dont want my account banned. I'll explain tomorrow.
PUBG
Feeling sorry for u dear Pubg.Your student has lefted & now u chatter all alone
Wasem
Aneesa Ma'm will make us understand. Dun't wry dear Madiha
Wasem
Where is she teaching. I mean ur mam
PUBG
PUBG sr ty to do dicuss on relevent matter dont wry disturbing elements are exit everywhere
musharaf
thnkx pubg sir for always sharing ur ideas there
Madiha
Yep
PUBG
Welcome
PUBG
You trash heap wht irrelevant u saw in my texts i'm talking vid my batchmate.if you're getting disturbed u can sod off #Musharaf
Wasem
Wht tempts u to knw where my teacher teaches us #PUBG
Wasem
waseem solute to ur kindness nd ur way of talking
musharaf
U r not here for learning or teaching... U r trying to showoff.. And we don't care about it.. I quit this chat
PUBG
yeah offcourse
musharaf
PUBG if i need some material about any topic r uh help me...
musharaf
pubg sr
musharaf
Yeah sure
PUBG
thank uh sir
musharaf
How Louis wirth called Urbanism as an ideal type when it prevails in real form?
Wasem Reply
sir, what is sociology modern trends?
Sandeep Reply
what is the difference between magic and totka
Ravi Reply
Do u got the answer
PUBG
in what ways will American families likely change in structure and process in the future?
Eboni Reply
One way is that the traditional roles of the male being the sole breadwinner will most likely change where it is not uncommon for women to be breadwinners as well
Kimmy
how does society cause desaeas
Kahange Reply
what is deviant behavior and why is relative.
Haruna
How Louis wirth called urbanisation as an ideal type when it prevails in reality?
Wasem
samajsatra ki paribhasha de
Ali Reply
wt
Aijaz
समाजशास्त्र मानव समाज का अध्ययन है। यह सामाजिक विज्ञान की एक शाखा है, जो मानवीय सामाजिक संरचना और गतिविधियों से संबंधित जानकारी को परिष्कृत करने और उनका विकास करने के लिए, अनुभवजन्य विवेचनऔर विवेचनात्मक विश्लेषण की विभिन्न पद्धतियों का उपयोग करता है।
Soumya
समाज के विभिन्न पहलुओं के क्रमबद्ध अध्ययन को समाजशास्त्र कहते हैं |
Soumya
समाजशास्त्र मानव समाज का अध्ययन है। यह सामाजिक विज्ञान की एक शाखा है, जो मानवीय सामाजिक संरचना और गतिविधियों से संबंधित जानकारी को परिष्कृत करने और उनका विकास करने के लिए, अनुभवजन्य विवेचनऔर विवेचनात्मक विश्लेषण की विभिन्न पद्धतियों का उपयोग करता है।
Soumya
what is sociology?
Dulom
the study of human behaviour and its environment
Jimmy
The study of human behaviour beliefs etc.study of man's life from woom to tom
Zahid
what's criminal investigation?
Haruna
it is simple be defines as the process of collecting information or evidence about a particular issues eg.place, when, interrogation and many more
Oduro
what is the nature of social problem?
rashid
relative deprivation
Batch Reply
Why is Max Weber different from other founding fathers of sociology
Bertha Reply
He's a sociologist that looks at society at macro level & is a conflict theorist that looks at the inequalities within society. For example functionalists (Emile Durkheim) focuses on value consensus. On the other hand Marxists view the inequalities.
Kimmy
what problems sociologist faced in their profession
Mishi Reply
The sociologists professional ethics defines the rules of the sociologists professional activities. Observing moral standards is an expression of care not only for the sociologists common good, but also for the society common good as the society is examined by the sociologists and the soci
Aijaz
It varries from country to country. As it is comparatively a new profession, I think job placement itself is one among the key concern for the new Sociologists. Main reason is that what they do is usually considered to be something that is not as good as what other professionals do.
Naughty
thanks
Mishi
what is the difference between sociology imagination and perspective?
Prince Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to sociology 2e. OpenStax CNX. Jan 20, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11762/1.6
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