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Finally, children develop, understand, and learn the idea of the generalized other    , the common behavioral expectations of general society. By this stage of development, an individual is able to imagine how he or she is viewed by one or many others—and thus, from a sociological perspective, to have a “self” (Mead 1934; Mead 1964).

Kohlberg’s theory of moral development

Moral development is an important part of the socialization process. The term refers to the way people learn what society considered to be “good” and “bad,” which is important for a smoothly functioning society. Moral development prevents people from acting on unchecked urges, instead considering what is right for society and good for others. Lawrence Kohlberg (1927–1987) was interested in how people learn to decide what is right and what is wrong. To understand this topic, he developed a theory of moral development that includes three levels: preconventional, conventional, and postconventional.

In the preconventional stage, young children, who lack a higher level of cognitive ability, experience the world around them only through their senses. It isn’t until the teen years that the conventional theory develops, when youngsters become increasingly aware of others’ feelings and take those into consideration when determining what’s “good” and “bad.” The final stage, called postconventional, is when people begin to think of morality in abstract terms, such as Americans believing that everyone has the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. At this stage, people also recognize that legality and morality do not always match up evenly (Kohlberg 1981). When hundreds of thousands of Egyptians turned out in 2011 to protest government corruption, they were using postconventional morality. They understood that although their government was legal, it was not morally correct.

Gilligan’s theory of moral development and gender

Another sociologist, Carol Gilligan (1936–), recognized that Kohlberg’s theory might show gender bias since his research was only conducted on male subjects. Would females study subjects have responded differently? Would a female social scientist notice different patterns when analyzing the research? To answer the first question, she set out to study differences between how boys and girls developed morality. Gilligan’s research demonstrated that boys and girls do, in fact, have different understandings of morality. Boys tend to have a justice perspective, by placing emphasis on rules and laws. Girls, on the other hand, have a care and responsibility perspective; they consider people’s reasons behind behavior that seems morally wrong.

Gilligan also recognized that Kohlberg’s theory rested on the assumption that the justice perspective was the right, or better, perspective. Gilligan, in contrast, theorized that neither perspective was “better”: the two norms of justice served different purposes. Ultimately, she explained that boys are socialized for a work environment where rules make operations run smoothly, while girls are socialized for a home environment where flexibility allows for harmony in caretaking and nurturing (Gilligan 1982; Gilligan 1990).

What a pretty little lady!

“What a cute dress!” “I like the ribbons in your hair.” “Wow, you look so pretty today.”

According to Lisa Bloom, author of Think: Straight Talk for Women to Stay Smart in a Dumbed Down World , most of us use pleasantries like these when we first meet little girls. “So what?” you might ask.

Bloom asserts that we are too focused on the appearance of young girls, and as a result, our society is socializing them to believe that how they look is of vital importance. And Bloom may be on to something. How often do you tell a little boy how attractive his outfit is, how nice looking his shoes are, or how handsome he looks today? To support her assertions, Bloom cites, as one example, that about 50 percent of girls ages three to six worry about being fat (Bloom 2011). We’re talking about kindergarteners who are concerned about their body image. Sociologists are acutely interested in of this type of gender socialization, by which societal expectations of how boys and girls should be —how they should behave, what toys and colors they should like, and how important their attire is—are reinforced.

One solution to this type of gender socialization is being experimented with at the Egalia preschool in Sweden, where children develop in a genderless environment. All the children at Egalia are referred to with neutral terms like “friend” instead of “he” or “she.” Play areas and toys are consciously set up to eliminate any reinforcement of gender expectations (Haney 2011). Egalia strives to eliminate all societal gender norms from these children’s preschool world.

Extreme? Perhaps. So what is the middle ground? Bloom suggests that we start with simple steps: when introduced to a young girl, ask about her favorite book or what she likes. In short, engage with her mind … not her outward appearance (Bloom 2011).


Psychological theories of self-development have been broadened by sociologists who explicitly study the role of society and social interaction in self-development. Charles Cooley and George Mead both contributed significantly to the sociological understanding of the development of self. Lawrence Kohlberg and Carol Gilligan developed their ideas further and researched how our sense of morality develops. Gilligan added the dimension of gender differences to Kohlberg’s theory.

Short answer

Think of a current issue or pattern that a sociologist might study. What types of questions would the sociologist ask, and what research methods might he employ? Now consider the questions and methods a psychologist might use to study the same issue. Comment on their different approaches.

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Explain why it’s important to conduct research using both male and female participants. What sociological topics might show gender differences? Provide some examples to illustrate your ideas.

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Further research

Lawrence Kohlberg was most famous for his research using moral dilemmas. He presented dilemmas to boys and asked them how they would judge the situations. Visit (External Link) to read about Kohlberg’s most famous moral dilemma, known as the Heinz dilemma.


Cooley, Charles Horton. 1902. “The Looking Glass Self.” Pp. 179–185 in Human Nature and Social Order . New York: Scribner’s.

Bloom, Lisa. 2011. “How to Talk to Little Girls.” Huffington Post , June 22. Retrieved January 12, 2012 ( (External Link) ).

Erikson, Erik. 1982. The Lifecycle Completed: A Review . New York: Norton.

Durkheim, Émile. 2011 [1897]. Suicide . London: Routledge.

Freud, Sigmund. 2000 [1904]. Three Essays on Theories of Sexuality . New York: Basic Books.

Gilligan, Carol. 1982. In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women’s Development . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Gilligan, Carol. 1990. Making Connections: The Relational Worlds of Adolescent Girls at Emma Willard School . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Haney, Phil. 2011. “Genderless Preschool in Sweden.” Baby&Kids , June 28. Retrieved January 12, 2012 ( (External Link) ).

Harlow, Harry F. 1971. Learning to Love . New York: Ballantine.

Harlow, Harry F., and Margaret Kuenne Harlow. 1962. “Social Deprivation in Monkeys.” Scientific American November:137–46.

Kohlberg, Lawrence. 1981. The Psychology of Moral Development: The Nature and Validity of Moral Stages . New York: Harper and Row.

Mead, George H. 1934. Mind, Self and Society , edited by C. W. Morris. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Mead, George H. 1964. On Social Psychology , edited by A. Strauss. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Piaget, Jean. 1954. The Construction of Reality in the Child . New York: Basic Books.

Questions & Answers

Sociology differences in upper primary classes
what was the main aim of Emile Durkheim in his study of society
Joseph Reply
his viewpoint is the parts of society are interdependent. each part influence the others.
he believed to study society one have to look beyind individual to social facts
compare and contrast the method use by positivism and interpretivist theories in sociology
Canny Reply
does anyone know what alienation under karl marx theory?
manisha Reply
In essence it means that a human becomes a sort of robot for big organization
a situation where he gets separated from what he did
As a worker/labour for capatilist society, he starts to forget his basic human instincts because he does not have time to think freely and aa a result he's not autonomous anymore
Got it?
post Industrial revolution , men started to work only for a company , they are now not producing a finished product like they used to do , so now they cant be proud of what they did , basically they cant differentiate or pick their work in the finished product thus alienated from work
correct me If I am wrong
yes got it thank you.
marx wanted a society where a man can work in the morning and have recreation in the evening also bring out his creativity
and does not end up in machine like or routine line production.
symbolic interaction
Carolyn Reply
its a theory which focus on one to one interactions. it examine the relationship of individuals within society. George herbert mead is the founder of this.
Symbolic interactionism is a sociological theory that analyzes society according to the subjective meaning they give to the objects.
social change theory
Pls importance of sociology
What are the importance of studein sociology
Ibrahim Reply
social verstehenian' s
Umar Reply
what means of social verstehenian' s
what is population dynamic
Verstehenian is a German term that simply means understand or perceive on a phenomenal
where is born Carl max?
Safi Reply
plz tell me about karl max
what do you now about Karl max
classic sociologist
A man against capitalism.
what about his work on religion
secularism and socialism are are aposit the capitalism
can we discusses here about social statistics
jhamandas Reply
As a nursing proffessional,why is it important to study sociology?
AnnaRosa Reply
Oh, forgive my manners guys..greetings to everyone, im a student nurse in my second year doing introduction to sociology..hoping you guys can help perhaps?
It's necessary to hv a good knowledge regarding the social aspect of the day to day life. Man is gregarious in nature. therefore sufficient knowledge regarding the society and social relationships is must.
The scope of sociology as a mother social science is increasing day by day , therefore the need is felt in many sectors/fields to teach it as one subject to introduction to beware the students of the basic scientific knowhow of society they are living in.
i support that idea because the learning of society is very crucial
thank you guys..
population dynamics some information please
what is education ?
Marriage And Kingship
Mass Communication
in nursing profession one needs to commumnicate with others and by studying sociology you will become social by nature as it drags one to realise social issues. well i was not know in nursuing also ppl read sociology.
we know some facts in our mind. but there is need to be something to click those in our mind. sociology will make you aware about the so called society which pressure one to be another.
according akinsola..how did he defined sociology
derric Reply
Please keep in mind that it's not allowed to promote any social groups (whatsapp, facebook, etc...) or exchange phone numbers or email addresses on our platform.
QuizOver Reply
guys can anyone please help me with non material components of culture.....how the components are reflected and expressed in culture?
Thoriso Reply
Thoriso Stamier Components of non material culture are expressed in terms of actions. we do it, we believe in, we speak, we have ideas, we express in language form , values in the society, symbols related to meanings, and so on...
worship, morals, or religion as a whole is also non material culture. we understand symbols. we have institutions for several basic needs and purposes. etc
thank u jhamandas. bro its seven years I hv had may M.A in Sociology. Now bcoz of little time for to study, I have forgotten many things. Now want to revise the course but.... anyway this foram is a rich source. discussion makes the way better.

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