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The objective of this session is to introduce the subject of software engineering. When you have read this session you will understand what software engineering is and why it is important, know the answers to key questions which provide an introduction to software engineering, understand ethical and professional issues which are important for software engineers.

Introduction

Virtually all countries now depend on complex computer-based systems. More and more products incorporate computers and controlling software in some form. The software in these systems represents a large and increasing proportion of the total system costs. Therefore, producing software in a cost-effective way is essential for the functioning of national and international economies.

Software engineering is an engineering discipline whose goal is the cost-effective development of software systems. Software is abstract and intangible. It is not constrained by materials, governed by physical laws or by manufacturing processes. In some ways, this simplifies software engineering as there are no physical limitations on the potential of software. In other ways, however, this lack of natural constraints means that software can easily become extremely complex and hence very difficult to understand.

Software engineering is still a relatively young discipline. The notion of ‘software engineering’ was first proposed in 1968 at a conference held to discuss what was then called the ‘software crisis’. This software crisis resulted directly from the introduction of powerful, third generation computer hardware. Their power made hitherto unrealisable computer applications a feasible proposition. The resulting software was orders of magnitude larger and more complex than previous software systems.

Early experience in building these systems showed that an informal approach to software development was not good enough. Major projects were sometimes years late. They cost much more than originally predicted, were unreliable, difficult to maintain and performed poorly. Software development was in crisis. Hardware costs were tumbling whilst software costs were rising rapidly. New techniques and methods were needed to control the complexity inherent in large software systems.

These techniques have become part of software engineering and are now widely although not universally used. However, there are still problems in producing complex software which meets user expectations, is delivered on time and to budget. Many software projects still have problems and this has led to some commentators (Pressman, 1997) suggesting that software engineering is in a state of chronic affliction.

As our ability to produce software has increased so too has the complexity of the software systems required. New technologies resulting from the convergence of computers and communication systems place new demands on software engineers. For this reason and because many companies do not apply software engineering techniques effectively, we still have problems. Things are not as bad as the doomsayers suggest but there is clearly room for improvement.

Quiz PDF eBook: 
SCJP Online Exam 310-065
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28 Pages
2013
English US
Educational Materials



Sample Questions from the SCJP Online Exam 310-065 Quiz

Question: Which are methods of the Object class? (.)

Choices:

wait(long msecs);

notify();

run();

start();

notifyAll();

Question: class Polish { public static void main(String[] args) { int x = 4; StringBuffer sb = new StringBuffer("..fedcba"); sb.delete(3,6); sb.insert(3, "az"); if(sb.length() > 6) x = sb.indexOf("b"); sb.delete((x-3), (x-2)); System.out.println(sb); } }

Choices:

..azab

..azba

..aabz

..zbaa

Question: Given two files: package xcom; public class Stuff { public static final int MY_CONSTANT = 5; public static int doStuff(int x) { return (x++)*x; } } import xcom.Stuff.*; import java.lang.System.out; class User { public static void main(String[] args) { new User().go(); } void go() { out.println(doStuff(MY_CONSTANT)); } } What is the result?

Choices:

5

6

compilation error

run time Exception

None of the above

Question: 12. TreeSet map = new TreeSet(); 13. map.add("one"); 14. map.add("two"); 15. map.add("three"); 16. map.add("four"); 17. map.add("one"); 18. Iterator it = map.iterator(); 19. while (it.hasNext() ) { 20. System.out.print( it.next() + " " ); 21. } What is the result?

Choices:

four one three two

one two three four

two four one three

two three four one

four three two one

Question: Given the following directory structure: org | -- Robot.class | | -- ex |-- Pet.class | |-- why |-- Dog.class And the following source file: class MyClass { Robot r; Pet p; Dog d; } Which statement(s) must be added for the source file to compile? (.)

Choices:

import org.*;

import org.ex.*;

package org.*;

package org.ex.why;

package org.ex.*;

Question: class Clidders { public final void flipper() { System.out.println("Clidder"); } } public class Clidlets extends Clidders { public void flipper() { System.out.println("Flip a Clidlet"); super.flipper(); } public static void main(String [] args) { new Clidlets().flipper(); } } What is the result?

Choices:

Clidder

Flip a Clidlet

RuntimeException

compiles successfully

Compilation fails

Question: class Circus { public static void main(String[] args) { int x = 9; int y = 6; for(int z = 0; z < 6; z++, y--) { if(x > 2) x--; label: if(x > 5) { System.out.print(x + " "); --x; continue label; } x--; } } } What is the result?

Choices:

No O/P produced...

compilation fails.

RunTimeException

Question: class Titanic { public static void main(String[] args) { Boolean b1 = true; boolean b2 = false; boolean b3 = true; if((b1 & b2) | (b2 & b3) & b3) System.out.print("alpha "); if((b1 = false) | (b1 & b3) | (b1 | b2)) System.out.print("beta "); } } What is the result? Correct Answer

Choices:

alpha

beta

alpha beta

No O/P produced

compilation fails

Question: class Knowing { static final long tooth = 343L; static long doIt(long tooth) { System.out.print(++tooth + " "); return ++tooth; } public static void main(String[] args) { System.out.print(tooth + " "); final long tooth = 340L; new Knowing().doIt(tooth); System.out.println(tooth); } }

Choices:

340 341 343

341 343 340

343 341 340

compilation fails

Question: class Foozit { public static void main(String[] args) { Integer x = 0; Integer y = 0; for(Short z = 0; z < 5; z++) if((++x > 2) || (++y > 2)) x++; System.out.println(x + " " + y); } }

Choices:

6 3

4 2

8 4

8 2

Question: class TarsierX { static String s = "-"; public static void main(String[] args) { go(); System.out.println(s); } { go(); } static { go(); } static void go() { s+= "s"; } } What is the result?

Choices:

ss

-ss

-s

s

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Eric Crawford
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