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Blood pressure

This photo shows a nurse taking a woman’s blood pressure with a blood pressure cuff. The nurse is pumping the cuff with her right hand and holding a stethoscope on the patient’s arm with her left hand.
A proficiency in anatomy and physiology is fundamental to any career in the health professions. (credit: Bryan Mason/flickr)

Chapter objectives

After studying this chapter, you will be able to:

  • Distinguish between anatomy and physiology, and identify several branches of each
  • Describe the structure of the body, from simplest to most complex, in terms of the six levels of organization
  • Identify the functional characteristics of human life
  • Identify the four requirements for human survival
  • Define homeostasis and explain its importance to normal human functioning
  • Use appropriate anatomical terminology to identify key body structures, body regions, and directions in the body
  • Compare and contrast at least four medical imagining techniques in terms of their function and use in medicine

Though you may approach a course in anatomy and physiology strictly as a requirement for your field of study, the knowledge you gain in this course will serve you well in many aspects of your life. An understanding of anatomy and physiology is not only fundamental to any career in the health professions, but it can also benefit your own health. Familiarity with the human body can help you make healthful choices and prompt you to take appropriate action when signs of illness arise. Your knowledge in this field will help you understand news about nutrition, medications, medical devices, and procedures and help you understand genetic or infectious diseases. At some point, everyone will have a problem with some aspect of his or her body and your knowledge can help you to be a better parent, spouse, partner, friend, colleague, or caregiver.

This chapter begins with an overview of anatomy and physiology and a preview of the body regions and functions. It then covers the characteristics of life and how the body works to maintain stable conditions. It introduces a set of standard terms for body structures and for planes and positions in the body that will serve as a foundation for more comprehensive information covered later in the text. It ends with examples of medical imaging used to see inside the living body.

Exam PDF eBook: 
BOD Respiratory Exam
Download BOD Exam PDF eBook
20 Pages
2014
English US
Educational Materials



Sample Questions from the BOD Respiratory Exam Exam

Question: Humoral immunity is based on __________ in upper respiratory and ___________ in lower respiratory system.

Choices:

IgG, IgA

IgA, IgG

IgM, IgA

IgA, IgM

IgE, IgA

Question: Macrophages usually indicate chronic conditions in the lungs. True/ False

Choices:

True

False

Question: For airway defenses particles become trapped in mucus and gases are dissolved in mucus. _____________ particles are deposited on mucus membranes in turbinates. ____________particles often are deposited at bronchial - alveolar junctions.

Choices:

Smaller; Larger

Larger, Smaller

Question: Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding bronchopneumonia?

Choices:

Bronchopneumonia lesions are centered around bronchioles in a lobular pattern.

Bronchopneumonia often develops when animals are exposed to high numbers of virulent organisms and defenses are impaired.

Bronchopneumonia is caused by air borne insults, mostly inhaled bacteria which cause suppurative inflammation.

Bronchopneumonia is caused by bacteria or endotoxin delivered to lung via bloodstream

Bronchopneumonia has anterior- ventral distribution pattern with affected areas consolidated and firm.

Question: Purulent exudate is made up of what kind of cells?

Choices:

Neutrophil

Macrophages

Type I pneumocyte

Eosinophils

Mast Cell

Question: BRSV infection is an example of what type of pneumonia?

Choices:

Bronchopneumonia

Interstitial pneumonia

Bronchointerstitial pneumonia

Question: Which of the following is FALSE regarding interstitial pneumonia?

Choices:

Injury is in the alveolar walls, involving capillaries and alveolar interstitium.

Interstitial pneumonia has patchy or diffuse distribution but not anterior ventral.

Septicemia can cause interstitial pneumonia

Lungs are rubbery , heavy, and non collapsing .

Interstitial pneumonia starts in bronchioles not alveoli.

Question: __________________ is the main defense mechanism of alveoli.

Choices:

Neutrophils

Type I Alveolar epithelial cells

Macrophages

Type II Alveolar Epithelial cells

Mast Cells

Question: Type II pneumocytes have regenerative capacity. True/False

Choices:

True

False

Question: Type I pneumocytes have regenerative capacity. True/False

Choices:

True

False

Question: Which of the following is FALSE regarding pulmonary edema?

Choices:

Increased osmotic pressure causes pulmonary edema.

Decreased osmotic pressure in blood causes pulmonary edema.

Pulmonary edema is described as heavy , wet lungs

Pulmonary edema develops when permeability of endothelial or epithelial cells increase

Pulmonary edema prevents efficient exchange of gases.

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